3 1833 02562 0938
Gc 977.201 J33m
Montgomery, M- W.
History of Jay County,
BY M. W. MONTGOMERY.
PRINTED FOR THE AUTHOR,
BY CHURCH, GOODMAN & GUSHING,
51 & 63 La Salle-st, Chicago.
COX & DOXOHUE,
53 La Salle-st., Chicago.
i el i ratio I).
To the Pioneers op Jay County, for their enterprise aud
fortitude ia civilizing tlie wilderness, and to her Volunteer
Soldiers, for their gallant efforts to crush this wicked Re-
bellion, this Book is respectfully dedicated.
M. W. MoNTaOMERY.
This Book Is not written for the present generation. He who
reads it without keeping this in view, will be disappointed.
Not that it possesses any merit which cannot be appreciated at
the present time, but because it narrates those events which
grow in interest as they recede into the past. There are two
periods in the history of Jay County of great interest to her
people, viz : that of its Early Settlement and that during the
War against the Eebellion. To preserve for future generations
of her citizens a correct narration of these epochs, is the
July 20th, 1864.
I. First Family in Jay County, ... 13
II. The Second Family of Settlers, - - - 26
III. Orman Perring — The Hawkins Family, etc. 45
IV. The Fugitive Slaves, 54
V. William Simmons— Lost — Found, - - 63
VI. Nancj^ Hawkins — The Oldest Cabin — Incidents, 67
VII. The Pioneers of 1830, 73
VIII. Settlers and Incidents, 81
IX. New Settlers and their Experiences, - - 100
X. Wild Animals — Indians Fire-Hunting — First
Election — Lawsuit— Schools, - - 104
XI. Organization of the County, ... - 119
XII. Courts — Officers — Attorneys, ... 128
XIIL Township History, 147
XIV. Rev. I. N. Taylor— Limberlost Church, - 179
XV. Liber College, 189
XVI. Farmers' Academy — Greneral Items, - - 205
XVIL Jay County and the War, - - - - 220
In 1820 the presence of a white family in the territory now
embraced within the limits^of Jay County had never been
known. The aborigines had ranged its forests uninter-
rupted in tlieir wild pursuits. In its wilderness they chased
their game, they paddled their rough canoes upon its
streams, and here and there they kindled camp-fires, built
the wigwam, engaged in their savage revelries, or fought
their battles. But with the firs'- encroachments of civiliza-
tion upon their hunting grounds, they took their departure.
The flint^arrow-head, the tomahawk and the stone battle-axe
are the ; only mementos;! they have left us. Now, much of
their forest is cut away, and civilized men, with all the insti-
tutions of society and progress, occupy their places. To de-
lineate the causes and primary agents which have wrought
out this noble transformation is the pretension of this little
To gather fresh from the lips of the pioneers, while they
still remained, the story of their early trials, was neces-
sary to the completeness of the work. They are fast passing
away. While this work has been going through the press,
one venerable pioneer — Samuel Grissell — has departed, and
he will never read the pages in which he took so lively an
interest. Had the work been delayed a few years, the histo-
ry of the early settlement of Jay County would have been
wrapped in the uncertainties of tradition. One thing has
embarrassed the author at every step : Most of the persons
named herein are now living, and he who speaks of living
men, bares himself to showers of arrows from the quivers of
When the work was commenced, four j-ears ago, very lit-
tle was known by the people of the county, generally, con-
cerning its early settlement Less than half a dozen persons
then living in the county knew wlio was the first settler,
and wrong impressions widely prevailed upon that, as well
as very many other subjects. Some have boasted of their
knowledge of the early history of the county, yet they could
not tell who was its earliest settler, or even who was the first
in their own township. To brush away false traditions and
reveal fects, has been a leading object in preparing these
pages. Much difficulty has attended the investigation. It
has required patient, persevering labor to ascertain the truth
about many disputed points. To accurately fix a single date
lias sometimes required days of inquiry and cross-examina-
tion. To gather the histories of the companies, while they
were bravely facing the foe, has also beto a difficult task,
but they make a record highly flattering to the patriotism of
the soldiers. Jay County has never offered a bounty. Her
financial condition has been such as to render this course
necessary, unless she should overwhelm herself with debt.
At the opening of the war she v>^as without public buildings,
or money to erect them. The building of a jail and pur-
chase of a poor farm were a necessity. Other public build-
ings must soon be built. Thus, while many other counties
have given tens of thousands of dollars to induce their citi-
zens to volunteer, the patriot sons of Jay have gone forth un-
influenced by other motives ihun pure love of country, which
is patriotism in its noblest sense. Nor has there been less
volunteering on this account. The number to be drafted in
the county under the call of the President in July for 500,000
men, shows that the county is equal to her sisters, which,
no bounty being olfered, reflects the highest honor upon her
people. The number of men to be drafted is 203, distributed
among the townships as follows: Richland, none; Knox,
19; Penn, 15; Jefferson, 28; Green, 27; Jackson, 19; Pike,
32 ; Wa3me, none ; Bear Creek, 5 ; Madison, 17 ; Noble, 24;
How Strangely have the fortunes of war scattered the One
Thousand Soldiers from Jay ! From Gettysburg to Charles-
ton, from Rich Mountain to Pea Ridge and New Orleans—
everj'where over the extended theatre of the war have her
soldiers fought. In every contest their devotion to their coun-
try's cause has been self-sacrificing, and their bravery unfal-
tering. A crown of glory and the gratitude of their country-
men await them. The alithor regrets exceedingly that cir-
cumstances beyond his control compelled him to omit any
history of the fractional companies, only so far as the lists of
the members indicate. Company F, 40th Ohio regiment, has
traversed Western Virginia, Kentucky and Tennessee, and is
now participating in the grand operations of Gen. Sherman
before Atlanta. Their record is a noble one, of which their
children's children will be proud. A sketch of the hard-
fought battles and brave deeds of company C, 19th Indiana
regiment, would itself make a volume. It is their all-suffi-
cient, crowning glory that they participated in the battles of
Cedar Mountain, Gains' Farm, Second Bull Run, South
Mountain, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Chancellorville and
Gettysburg, and are now in the struggle before Petersburg.
The repeated efforts of the author to obtain a history of com-
pany E, 7th Indiana Cavalry, have been constantly baffled by
some strange caprice of the mails.
The author now presents the result of his labors to the peo-
ple of Jay County. That the work is imperfect, he fully
realizes. When several thousand dates and as many names
are given in so small a compass, it would be very strange if
errors did not occur. Out of the abundant material that has
been gathered, the chief difficulty has been to determine
what not to say. But he rejoices in the consciousness that,
through it all, he has been constantly governed by an honest
purpose to do justice to the subject, so far as his poor abilities
would permit. He hopes the reader will find as much pleas-
ure in the perusal as he has found in the preparation.
The author's acknowledgments are due to many persons
for information which thej^ have kindly furnished. First
among these are Mary Studabaker, Mary Brooks and Nancy
Hawkins — that daring trio, the oldest pioneers of Jay Coun-
ty. B. VV. Hawkins lias given much valuable and varied
information. Without his aid no correct histor}' of the early
settlement of the county could have been written. The pa-
tient research and friendly interest of Hon. J. M. Haj^nes
have added many facts which would not otherwise have
been obtained. From the complete diary of Hon. Theophilus
Wilson the sketch of New Corydon is gathered. The history
of other villages is not so fully given, because no one has
kept so faithful a record of them. Mr. Wilson also furnished
other acceptable items. Rev. I. N. Tajdor has also contrib-
uted a large share of facts, and J. C. Lotz statistics from
Washington City. The many pioneers whom the author
has consulted and the many others who have written him,
have placed him under obligations. The principal facts
given in the histories of the respective military companies
have been kindly furnished by the following persons : Com-
pany C, 39th Indiana, James M. Bromagem ; company B,
34th Indiana, Major Nimrod Headington; company E, 89th
Indiana, Captain J. P. Winters, Sergeant J. W. Jackson and
Elias Loofbourrow; company H, 100th Indiana, Major J.
W. Headington and Rev. E. Tucker ; company F, 75th In-
diana, Lieutenant Joseph Lewis, Lieutenant G. W. lilcGriff
and Charles A. Black ; company B, 11th Indiana Cavalry,
Lieutenant R. C. Harper ; company C, 19th Indiana, George
M. Rathbun ; company F, 40th Ohio, Francis McLaughlin,
at Lancaster, and the members of the company in the field ;
the One Hundred Days Men, George G. Montgomery and
Captain G. W. Fairchilds. In the Miscellaneous List, valua-
ble services have been rendered by Provost Marshal Cowgill,
of Wabash, and G. W. Abel. To all these the author owes
his thanks; and to his ever gracious Heavenly Father,
through whom all blessings come, he would express his pro-
THE FIRST FAMILY IN JAY COUNTY.
On the 15th day of February, 1821, Mr. Peter
Studabaker and Miss Mary Siraison were joined
in the bands of holy wedlock at the house of the
Simison family, where Fort Recovery,* Mercer
County, Ohio, now stands. The newly married
pair resolved to go still farther on the frontier,
and hew out for themselves a home in the wilder-
ness. So they gathered their household goods,
and with several friends entered the wilds, soon
striking the " Quaker Trace" leading from Rich-
mond to Fort Wayne, which they followed until
they reached the Wabash river. This spot was
their destination, and upon the low bank, near the
water's edge, they prepared to " camp." Cutting
four forked poles, they drove one end of each into
* See map.
14 THE FIRST FAMILY
the ground, laid poles and brush across the top,
and their camp was completed. A lire was kin-
dled at one end, by which the young wife cooked
supper for the company — her tirst experience in
house, or ra.her camp-keeping, by herself. Their
simple repast was highly relished and soon dis-
patched, and they retired to rest, blankets spread
upon the ground serving for beds.
Sleep had scarcely calmed the wearied company
wlie'n they were aroused by the yells of a gang of
approaching wolves. Elsewhere came an answer-
ing howl, then another and another, till the forests
seemed ringing with their hideous yells. The
howling became so terrific, the dog sprang out
and threatened to give battle, but soon came
bounding back, panic stricken, and jumped upon
the nuptial bed. As they lay there, so close to
the bank, they could see about a dozen wolves at
the water's edge on the opposite shore. Soon
they heard the sharp, savage snap of wolf-teeth
near their bed, and glaring eyes shone in the
darkness within six feet of their camp. The men
sprang from the ground in alarm, seized their
rifles and fired. The howling pack fled in haste
and did not return. Again the men lay down,
and soon "tired nature's sweet restorer" calmed
their fears, and they slept soundly till morning —
perhaps dreaming of the pleasant homes and dear
friends of their childhood. Thus camped and
IN JAY COUNTY. 15
slept the first white family that ever trod the wil-
derness which fifteen years afterward became
This was on the farm now owned by Samuel
Hall, on the south bank of the "Wabash, at New
Corydon. Soon Mr. S. built a cabin, " all of the
olden time," and into it they moved, with the
naked earth for a floor. This cabin, .the first home
of that now widely known pioneer family — a rude
hut twelve by sixteen, of small round logs, with
clapboard roof held on by " weight poles," — was
the first civilized dwelling ever erected in our
county. Unbroken forests were on every hand ;
no house within fifteen miles — no mill or store
in thirty-five. Their only companions were In-
dians — their only foes were wolves.
These animals, always annoying by their con-
stant howling, were often very troublesome. It
was next to impossible to raise stock of any kind.
Once a wolf came up to the house in open day-
light, to attack a calf, when Mrs. S. appeared, and
it ran oif. At other times they were still bolder.
One night a pack attacked the hogs. Mr. S. went
out with his gun, his wife holding a torch while
he shot at them five times, but without eliect, and
they came still nearer, snapping their teeth almost
within reach. They seemed bent on an attack,
and the entreaties of his wife at last prevailed on
him to go into the house.
16 THE FIRST FAMILY
Mr. Studabaker obtained a livelihood in various
ways — principally by liunting. Ilis delight was
to be in the wilderness, beyond the reach of soci-
ety and its innovations. He loved the quiet gran-
deur of the forest, and the excitement of hunting
deer, squirrels, otters, wild ducks, wolves and
bears, possessed to him irresistible charms. The
game he killed furnished meat for his table in
abundance, and of the rarest kind. But they had
other sources of income. Even at that early day
many travelers passed along the " Quaker Trace,"
and they all stopped to enjoy the hospitality of
these pioneers. In fact, at that time it was rather
a matter of necessity, as the distance in either
direction to any other house was a day's travel.
The " Quaker Trace" was so called because it was
opened and traveled by the Quakers of Wayne
County, on their way to Fort Wayne to market.
Mr. S. sometimes traded provisions to the In-
dians for furs, and by selling the furs added some-
thing to his income. An incident of this kind is
In the fall of 1821, Mr. S. and Thomas Eobin-
son, who then lived on the " Prairie," in what is
now Adams County, went to Greenville and got
some flour, and bringing it to the Wabash, dug
out a large canoe and started down the river, to
sell their flour to the Miami Indians, in a town at
the mouth of the Mississinewa — one hundred
IN JAY COUNTY. IT
miles by the river route, and a few miles above
Peru, Miami County, Indiana. Easily and rapidly
they glided down the smooth waters of the
"Wabash. In the afternoon of the second day
they came in sight of the town. They soon saw
that the Indians were on a desperate " spree," and
were all dancing, singing, yelling and fighting.
They wisely concluded it would not be safe to
visit the town that night ; so they rowed np the
river a short distance, anchored their canoe, went
ashore and camped for the night. The next day
they went down towards the town. Robiiason
staid with the canoe, while Studabaker went to
negotiate a sale of the flour. The first Indian he
met was a squaw, named " Bigknife," with whom
he was well acquainted. She told him they had
had a terrible time the night before, and that in
the fighting several Indians had been killed, and
that they were then all in their huts, sleeping off
the eficcts of their revelry. He inquired if any
of the men were sober. She replied that one was?
and offered to conduct him to the hut where that
Indian slept. On their way through the village,
which seemed almost deserted, they passed by a
young Indian who was lying with his stomach
ripped open, and part of his entrails lying upon
the ground, but still alive. They went and aroused
the sober Indian, who after much painting and
ornamenting, went with Mr. Studabaker to the
18 THE FIEST FAMILY
canoe. On their Tvay they passed the wonnded
Indian. A squaw was sitting by his side, weep-
ing, replacing the entrails, and with an awl and
deer's sinew was sewing up the horrihle wound.
The Indian looked at the flour, and pointing to
the sun and the western sky, said that when the
sun reached such a place the Indians would get
hungry and come and buy. At the appointed
time this sober Indian came down to the canoe,
followed by the others, each of whom purchased
a small quantity of flour. Our adventurers then
returned, occujDying about three days in their up-
This family endured very many severe hardships
during their stay at this point on the Wabash. So
the first families who settled in each section of the
county endured privations and trials which would
have overwhelmed others less patient, energetic
and brave. To the comfortably situated residents
at the present time these trials seem almost incred-
ible. Here is a leaf from the life of Mary Studa-
Late in the autumn of 1822, the Indians, as
they were sometimes in the habit of doing, stole
two colts — one from Mr. Studabaker, and one from
his brother-in-law, John Simison. In the early
part of winter Simison came to Studabaker's, and
the two men set out for "Wapakoneta, Ohio, in
search of the colts among the Indians of that
IN JAY COUNTY. 19
country. Before leaving:, Mr. Studabaker hired
a boy from tlie settlement to stay with his wife,
who then had a babe only three months old, to
cut the wood and build fires. The men had been
gone scarcely an hour ^yhen this boy proved
treacherous, and left Mrs. Studabaker and her
child entirely alone. This placed her in an alarm-
ing situation. Her husband expected to be absent
nearly a week ; the weather was very cold, and
she had no wood and but little strength. She
was fifteen miles from any neighbors, in a wilder-
ness full of roving gangs of Indians and wolves.
The prospect was a dreary one. She saw her
dangerous situation, and with heroic fortitude
resolved to do her utmost to save herself and
child. She devoted herself assiduously to chop-
ping wood and building fires. Quite naturally
she sought the kinds of wood which would chop
the easiest, and sometimes cut "buckeye," the
poorest of all wood. This made it difficult to
keep good fires ; but she managed to get along
without suffering much, except from loneliness,
until the fifth day, when the weather turned ex-
tremely cold. All this time had passed, and she
had not seen a human being. Even the sight of
an Indian would have gladdened her heart. This
day she built a fire, but it would not burn. She
chopped more wood and piled the great fire-place
full; but all in vain. To use her own words, "It
20 THE FIRST FAMILY
seemed to be, as it is said to be in Greenland
Bometiraes, too cold for the lire to burn." Dis-
heartened and despairing, as her last hope, she
took her babe and went to bed. Here they must
lie until assistance came, or freeze to deatli ! But
the kind care of an ever- watchful Father in Heaven
was upon her. In about two hours Mr. Studa-
baker came home, bringing the stolen colt. He
soon built a large, comfortable, crackling fire.
How great was her joy at this very opportune
Mrs. Studabaker gives the following account of
the survey of this part of Indiana by the govern-
ment surveyors. In the winter of 1821 and 1822
James "Worthington, of Columbus, Ohio, son of
Governor Worthington, accompanied by nine
assistants, came to Mr. Studabaker's, and made
their home with him during the three months
occupied in making the survey. Having two sets
of instruments, they operated in two distinct com-
panies, and surveyed the territory now making
the counties of Jay, Adams and Wells. They
gave Mr. Studabaker a plat of their survey, which
was very useful to the early settlers for many
About forty rods below Hall & Arnett's Mills,
at !New Corydou, is a tree on which many dates
have been cut, and among others the figures
"1822." They are now grown up, so as to be
IN JAY COUNTY. 21
barely visible, and have every appearance of
having been put there at that time. It is quite
likely tlie work of the government surveyors.
The first person born in Jay County was Abeam
Studabakek. He was born in the little cabin on
the Wabash, September 29th, 1822, a child of the
wilderness — the first born of the family and of the
county. His life was but a blossom, having died
March 11th, 1821:, at Fort Eecovery. Another
son was afterward given the same name.
Mr. Studabaker moved to the Wabash with the
intention of making that his permanent home;
but the frequent overflows of the river at that time
discouraged him, and finally led him to move
away. One evening in the spring of 1822 several
travelers stopped to stay all night. The Wabash
was quite high, but not unusually so. Mrs. Stu-
dabaker made a bed on the floor, in which the
travelers retired to rest. In the night, one of
them thought he felt rather "moist," and on turn-
ing over found the puncheons were floating. They
got up ; one went up in the " loft," and the other
concluded to nap the rest of the night away on
the logs of wood by the fire place. But the family,
being more fortunate, were on a bedstead, and
slept there until morning, when they found all
the puncheons except the two on which the bed-
posts rested, floating about the room. Mr. Studa-
baker waded out and brought his canoe into the
22 THE FIRST FAMILY
house, and took the family to dry land in the
"woods, where they camped until the water went
down, which was in four or five days. In this
way the Wabash overflowed the land about his
cabin, and he moved back to Fort Recover}^, hav-
ing lived in Jay county about two years.
Mary Studabaker has been a pioneer all he^
life. She was born March 16th, 1796, in Sherman
Valley, Penn. At the age of tv/o years her father,
John Simison, moved to Kentucky and settled
within six miles of Lexington. Residing there
six years, they moved to Warren County, Ohio.
After living there ten or twelve years, they moved
to Greenville, and from there, in the spring of
1817, to Fort Recovery. There was not a single
family then living in all the region of the Upper
Wabash. They were the first pioneers of Fort
Recovery — that place so celebrated in history as
the scene of St, Clair's defeat, and Mary was
afterward of Jay, and still later of the south
part of Adams County. There was a trading
house then at Fort Recovery, built by David Con-
nor. It was about twelve feet square, and sur-
rounded by pickets — logs set in the ground reach-
ing about eight feet high — as a protection against
the Indians. Into this house John Simison and
family moved. Mr. Simison farmed the ground
upon which the town is now built, while his boys
did the hunting:. He raised most of the livino: for
IN JAY COUNTY. 23
the family, but had to go to Greenville to find a
store and mill. He had a hand mill, and some-
times ground on that.
It was while living here that the Treaty was
made with the Indians, October 6th, 1818. Dr.
Perrine, of Greenville, attended that meeting.
Starting in the morning, on foot, he expected to
reach Simison's that evening ; but night overtook
him while he was in what is now Madison Town-
ship. Finding he must camp out, he was much
alarmed lest the wolves should devour him.
Coming upon a much-broken tree-top, he set
about building a camp that would protect him.
Out of the broken limbs he built a very small,
oval-shaped pen, leaving a hole at the bottom.
Into this he crept, and drew a stick, prepared for
the purpose, into the hole after him, thus effectu-
ally blocking all entrance. Curling up there, he
slept soundly. Some time after this Thomas Rob-
inson settled beside Mr. Simison — then soon
moved into Adams County.
But sorrow was in store for this family. Mrs.
Simison died in September, 1820, and on the last
day of that ever-memorable year, she was fol-
lowed by her husband. His burial took place on
]^ew Year's da^y, 1821. Thomas Robinson and
Peter Studabaker happened to be there at the
time of his death, and making a rough box which
had to answer for a coffin, they buried their pio-
24 THE FIRST FAlinLY
neer friend. But for the fortunate presence of
these men, none beside the mourning orphans
would have been there to perform the last sad
oflSces for the lamented dead.
In a few weeks Mary was married, and entered
upon her brief life of trials in Jay County. After
moving back to Fort Recovery, Peter Studabaker
was engaged chiefly in farming for about twelve
years, when he moved to Adams County, where
he died June 15th, 1840. He was born in 1790,
in Moreland County, Pennsylvania. Mart now
lives with her son Abram, in Adams Count}'-,
Indiana, in a log house, with one of those great
old-fashioned cabin fire places, which so abund-
antly dispense warmth and cheerfulness to the
inmates. It is about sixty feet from the river,
upon the banks of which she has lived since her
childhood days,nearly half a centur3^ By the side
of its quiet waters she was wooed and won, and
has devotedly braved many dangers, reared a
large family, and followed her husband and several
children to the silent tomb. She is now seventy-
four years of age, and though in feeble health, her
mind still retains its orio-inal vigor. Strono; com-
mon sense, quick perception and good judgment
are her characteristics. Indeed, without these
qualities, she could not have passed through so
rugged and eventful a life. Her son. Honorable
David Studabaker, has resided for many years in
IN JAY COUNTY. 25
Decatur, Indiana, where he has been, and still is,
a prominent attorney. He has represented that
county in the Legislature of the State, and was
for four years the State Senator from the district
composed of the counties of Jay, Adams and
Wells, in which position he sustained himself
THE SECOND FAMILY OF SETTLERS.
On Monday morning, near the close ofl^ovem-
ber, 1823, a few persons might have been seen
crossing the Mississinewa river, making their way
northward from the residence of Mr. Mishack
Lewallen, or what is now the pleasant village of
Kidgeville, Randolph County, Indiana. The com-
pany consisted of John Gain, who was a Dutch
Indian-trader, John Brooks, his wife Mary
Brooks, and ]N"ancy Brooks, who was then an in-
fant. Mary and her child were riding in a wagon,
drawn by one yoke of oxen ; John Gain was
driving, while John Brooks was cutting out the
way. They were entering an untamed and un-
known wilderness, where before only the tragic
scenes of the wild forest had been enacted.
The noiseless march of the surly bear, the
piteous bleating of the deer, as, wearied and des-
SECOND FAMILY OF SETTLERS. 27
pairing, it resigns itself to the jaws of the wolves
that have been fleetly chasing it for a day ; the
terrible howling and bloody battles over the
booty ; the stealthy step of the Indian in pursuit
ot his game, and sharp crack of his rifle and ex-
ulting "whoop," and upward curling of the blue
smoke from camp fires or rude wigwams, and the
excitement of the " Indian war dance" — all these
were the sights and sounds to which these tall
forests had been mute witnesses for centuries.
The sound of the white man's axe was the precur-
sor of the dawn of civilization upon that wilder-
ness. The company were endeavoring to follow
an Indian bridle path called the " Godirey Trace,"
which led from the settlement on the Mississine-
wa to the Indian town on the Salimonie.
The two men kept up a lively discourse upon
the new country, the abundance of game, the
quality of the soil, the prospect for profitable trade
with the Indians, and' such other topics as are
always full of interest to the pioneer. Thus slow-
ly wended their way forward the second white
family that ever moved into Jay County, and the
first one that made it their permanent home.
The day was a most beautiful one, and the
weather very pleasant for the season. The mild
brilliance of the autumn sunliglit tinted the forests
with golden rays, the fallen leaves spread the
earth with a carpet of brown, and the air was me-
28 THE SECOND FAMILY
lodious with the farewell songs of the feathery
tribes, as they took their flight for the sunny re-
gions of the far South. Save the chirping of the
birds and the frisking and chattering of the squir-
rels, the voices and movements of the company
were all that broke the stillness of those dense
forests. The scene before and around them was
grand and inspiring, and the men moved forward
elated and cheerful, while hope painted the future
with long lives of enjoyment and prosperity.
On their way they passed over the beautiful
knoll on which ISTew Mount Pleasant is now sit-
uated, and toward evening stopped for the night,
and camped on the banks of a small creek, after-
ward called Brooks' Creek, in honor of the family
which was the first to camp, and subsequently the
first to live upon its banks. They kindled a
cheerful fire by the side of a large log, and Mary
Brooks cooked supper by it, getting water from
the stream. Soon after nightfall they prepared to
rest, for all were weary with their day's travel.
The ground was dry, and they gathered in heaps
the fallen leaves, spread blankets upon them, and,
with feet toward the fire, all lay down under the
star-spangled canopy which overspread them. But
Mary Brooks did not sleep. Her heart was full
of sadness. To use her own language, "she was
sad all that day, as they came through the wil-
derness." They seemed to be entering an unend-
OF SETTLERS. 29
ing forest, and going — she knew not where. She
had bidden farewell to friends, society and even
civilization, and was going where, besides her hus-
band and child, her only companions would be
Indians and wild beasts. Her husband could
hunt, trade or travel ; but what could she do to
draw her mind from the surrounding wilderness ?
A lonely life in a dreary wilderness, beyond the
reach of society and friends — a sad, disheartening
prospect ! Still more, as they lay upon the
ground in the open air, darkness around them,__
the twinkling stars above them, the wolves howled
fearfully around the camp. To an old hunter
such circumstances are fascinating, but to woman
— delicate, sensitive, home-loving woman — they
have no charms. So Mary Brooks lay down upon
her bed of leaves, and wept bitterly all that long
Many times she besought her husband to take
her back to the settlements ; but his desire to go
forward and try the life of a pioneer and secure a
home for his family, led him to deny her urgent
Early the next morning they set out for the
Indian village, on the banks of the Salimonie, of
twenty or thirty huts. The Indians were of the
Miami tribe, and Francois Godfrey their chief. A
few years afte.rward he built a brick house there,
and since then it has generally been known as the
30 THE SECOND FAMILY
" Godfrey Farm."* The Indians left in 1884,
and the farm is now owned by a resident of Ken-
tucky. They reached this town about sunset.
The Indians were very kind, and f^ave them a
camp to sleep in that night. On Wednesday
mori^^ig they crossed the SaUmonie to their
home, three quarters of a mile distant. This
consisted of two cabins, built by John Gain — one
for a dwelling, and the other to keep articles in
for traffic with the Indians. They were situated
on the low bank of a small prairie. No ground
was cleared around the cabins, but the men im-
mediately set to work and cleared seven acres.
Mary Brooks, naturally industrious, energetic and
cheerful, looked about her and went to work.
Though twenty-four miles from any white family,
surrounded by forests and savages, yet for the
sake of pleasing her husband, whom she devoted-
ly loved, she resolved to be contented.
Having introduced the second family who
braved tlie dangers and endnred the privations of
pioneer life in Jay, a brief sketch of their former
lives may be interesting :
John Brooks, born August 6th, 1791, near Phil-
adelphia, Pennsylvania, was raised a farmer, in
Maj'sville, Ohio. M^rj Campbell was born Oc-
tober 19th, 1T99, in Bourbon County, Kentucky.
* See map.
OF SETTLEES. 31
At an early age she moved to Ohio, where, in her
seventeenth year, she married John Brooks, July
15th, 1816. They farmed mitil, in June, 1817,
Mr. Brooks came to Ridge ville, Indiaua, to see
his sister, Hannah Lewallen. He was so fascin-
ated with the country that he would not return to
Ohio, and sent for his wife. Mary, willing to fol-
low the fortunes of her husband, immediately
prepared for the long trip, bade her friends what
proved to be a last farewell, and set out on horse-
back. Her youth, tine health and adventurous
spirit made her anxious to see the "new coun-
try." She arrived safely at the frontier settle-
In a few weeks her first child, Elizabeth, was
born ; but it died in thirteen months, and was the
first person buried in the cemetery at Ridgeville.
There were but three families in that settlement
prior to her arrival. They were Joab Ward-,
Mishack Lewallen and Stephen Jones.
One day, one of the men shot an Indian whom
he caught stealing cabbage from his garden. This
aroused the anger of the Indians, and the settle-
ment was very much alarmed lest they should all
be murdered. They made a fort of Lewalien's
house, and the four families lived in it for two
weeks, in constant fear of an attack. But their
enemies did not come, and they again ventured
forth to their usual avocations. During the sum-
32 THE SECOXD FAMILY
mer of 1823 Mr. Brooks made two visits to the
Godfrey Farm, and there became acquainted with
John Gain, who offered him $60 a 3'ear if he
w^oiild bring his family there and keep house.
Desiring to get money to enter some land, he ac-
cepted the offer, and in November Jolm Gain
took the family as heretofore narrated, to his home
on the little prairie.
John Gain soon began to think that he could
do better at Fort "Wayne, and in February, 1824,
moved there. This greatly embarrassed Mr.
Brooks. It deprived him of the expected incomfe,
and left him there alone with the Indians, with no
means of conveying his family to the settlement.
In the spring he planted the cleai-ed ground in
corn, and there was a fine prospect for a crop un-
til the blackbirds came by thousands and destroy-
ed the most of it. Mrs. Brooks says it seemed as
if there was a bird for every ear. Fortunately
John Brooks was a favorite with the Indians, and
they taught him their arts in hunting and trap-
ping, and these were now his only dependence.
During his stay there he killed thirteen wolves,
besides large numbers of deer, raccoon, and other
animals. He sohi the furs in Fort Wayne at high
prices. In this way he supported his family the
first year. The second spring he again planted
corn, and raised an abundant crop. After a while
he got a yoke of oxen, and then commenced trad-
OF SETTLEES. S3
ing with the Indians, mostly in flour, which he
brought from Stillwater, Darke County, Ohio.
One time when Mr. Brooks was preparing to
go to Hidgeville, he got an old Indian woman,
who was the mother of Francois Godfrey, the Chief,
to stay with Mary during his absence. She was
a kind old "squaw," and Mrs. Brooks avers was
quite good company. They passed the time pleas-
antly together, until one day an Indian came
there and gave her some whisky, and she drank
freely. That night she was taken very sick. Mrs.
Brooks did everything possible for her relief ; but
she grew worse. About two o'clock in the morn-
ing she brought her blanket, sat down on the
floor, and leaned her head against Mrs. Brooks,
and there, supported by her pale-faced friend, in a
few minutes she breathed her last. Mrs. Brooks
laid the corpse upon the floor, covered it np and
waited alone with the dead until morning, when
the Indian who had been there the evening be-
fore, came, and she sent him to the Chief with the
news. A large number of Indians then came
down to Brooks', and showed many signs of sin-
cere mourning. By their request, Mrs. Brooks
baked a large cake in the ashes, and they buried
it with the corpse. The friendship of the Indi-
ans, and especially of the Chief, for the Brooks
family was now greatly increased. Mr. Brooks'
business kept him much of the time away from
34 THE SECOND FAMILY
home, and tlie Chief took great pains to see that
the family was not molested. lie gave orders to
his tribe that any Indian who would disturb them
should be killed ; and whenever Mr. Brooks was
absent, this Chief would send his son almost every
day to inquire of Mrs. Brooks' welfare. During
the several years in which the Indians were their
only neighbors, no unfriendliness or cruelty was
In June, 182i, Mr. Brooks started to Stillwater
for provisions, expecting to be gone several days.
His wife and child were to be left alone, as was
usual in such cases. She saw no one for several
days, except a traveler on his way to Fort Wayne,
who called for a meal. A heavy rain caused an
unprecedented rise in the streams, rendering it
impossible for Mr. Brooks to reach his family or
get nearer to them than Ridgeville. Mrs. Brooks
now began to fear for her husband. She knew
that he would make eveiy effort in his power to
reach his family, and greatly feared that he would
risk too much and get drowned. But apprehen-
sions of her own safety soon added to her per-
plexities. Her provisions were nearly gone, and
the Salimo'nie remained so high that she could
not cross to the Indian village to get relief. Her
forebodings and anxieties increased until, on the
thirteenth day of her husband's absence, she gave
the last mouthful of food about the house to her
OF SETTLERS. 35
child. She then had nothing whatever left but
some sugar and a little milk. ^ ^ 9S03 ff
Still the Salimonie overflowed its banks, and
relief came not. Her child lived on milk, but
cried almost continually, while her own sadness
and hunger were overwhelming. The belief that
Mr. Brooks was drowned, added to her own hun-
ger, made her desperate. In this suflering and
despairing condition did the poor woman and her
child live for three days. By this time she gave
up all hope of ever seeing her husband again, and
supposed she must starve ; but preferring a watery
grave to the slow torments of starvation, she
resolved to go to the Salimonie and drown herself
and little one. Taking the child, she went to
the river, but her weakness compelled her to rest
several times on the way. Probably the sight of
the swollen, angry current startled her, for she sat
down on a log when she reached the water's edge.
To use her own language : " It was the thought
that my husband was dead that so discouraged
me, and I concluded to go half way across the foot
log and throw myself into the stream." While
there weeping she saw a person coming toward
her on the opposite side of the river. Seeing he
had a hat on, she knew it was a white man. After
wading a long distance he reached the foot log and
came across to her. She was so weak that her joy
quite overcame her, and for a time she could not
36 THE SECOND FAMILY
answer his question — "What is the matter?" At
length she replied — " I'm starving !" It was her
old friend John Gain, returning for some things
he had left there. On learning her condition he
went with her, and carried the child back to the
cabin, and then went over to the JLndian village
for food. He got eighteen pounds of flour and
six of bacon, and started back, but by the time he
reached the river it was night. "Wading to the
foot log, he found the water had risen during his
absence, until the sweeping current was above it.
To attempt crossing would be certain death, and
those whom he was trying to succor would also
be lost. He stood pondering what to do until the
increasing darkness placed him in a new danger.
There were many deep holes along the bottoms,
and knowing that the darkness would prevent him
from avoiding them, he dared not return. Stand-
ing in three feet of water, a woman and her child
starving for want of the flour and bacon he had
on his back, while to go forward or backward
would be almost certain death, he was in a sad
dilemma. But there was no alternative — he must
stand there ; so there he stood, sides deep in water,
the night long ! Kever was tlie gray dawn of
morning welcomed more gladly. He then made
his way back to the town and inquired for a canoe,
but there was none nearer than three miles up the
stream. He gave a young Indian one dollar to
OF SETTLERS. 37
bring it down, and charged him to make all pos-
sible haste. But the Indian took his leisure, and
it was noon before he returned, and one o'clock
when John Gain reached the cabin with the long-
needed refreshments. He staid and saw the fam-
ished ones eat the first meal for nearly four days.
Their gratification and thankfulness amply com-
pensated him for his efibrts to relieve them.
Then he went his way, and Mary Brooks was
again alone. It had now been seventeen days
since her husband's departure, and during that
time the only human beings she had seen was
the traveler before mentioned and John Gain.
On the nineteenth day she was greatly rejoiced at
the sight of her husband. He left his oxen at the
Indian town, crossed the Salimonie by falling
trees and wading. They then set about making
a canoe, or "perogue," as they were then called,
and after rolling it three-quarters of a mile, they
got it into the stream and brought over their pro-
visions. The Salimonie continued so high that
it was nine days before the team could be brought
home. Thus ended one of the severest trials ear-
ly settlers are ever called to endure.
The only visitor Mary Brooks had while living
on the prairie was Mrs. Hannah Lewallen, from
Ridgeville, who came twenty-four miles on those
occasions, which, as Fanny Fern says, "involve
the increase of the census." At one time Miss
38 THE SECOND FAMILY
Barbary Quick came to work for them, walking
■with Mr. Brooks twcnty-fonr miles in one day.
This great distance from any settlement was at
all times, especially in cases of sickness, a serious
inconvenience. Once one of the children was
very sick. All the curativ^e arts which a mother
always knows seemed of no avail, aud they began
to fear their wilderness flower was to be taken from
them. John Brooks set out on foot for Fort
Wayne, the nearest place where medicine could
then be obtained. He performed the journey in
two days and nights, and on his return found the
child better, and it was soon well.
The second person born in the county, and the
first who is yet living, was Allen Brooks, March
4th, 1824. He still lives in Jay, and is a respect-
able citizen. The next one was William Brooks,
October 20th, 1825.
While Mr. Brooks was trading with the Indians
he went to the Big Miami, in Ohio, for some
things, and brought back a barrel of apples, which
he took to Fort Wayne and sold at a very high
price. Saving seven choice ones, he brought them
home to his wife. Like a prudent woman, she
saved the seeds and planted them. They came up
nicely, and Mary was so proud of her little nurs-
ery that she visited it nearly every day. But of
this and what came of it more hereafter.
John Brooks was delighted with the country on
OF SETTLERS. • 39
Brooks' Creek around wliere they camped on the
way out, and always said he would enter land
there. The place was then called Cherry Grove.
As they had lived on the prairie about two years
and a half, and no settlers had come in, they
determined to move to Cherry Grove, which would
bring them within twelve miles of the Ridgeville
Early in the spring Mr. Brooks hired a man
named Richard Swain for one jnonth. He was a
traveler. The two men went to Cherry Grove,
built two "half-faced" camps, and cleared a small
spot of ground, where Mary Brooks' orchard now
stands. "Half-faced" camps, as they were called,
must be mentioned frequently in this work, and
should be described. Generally, they were made
thus : poles were cut, and built up at one end in
the form of a log house, while the other end was
left open, and the end of the poles placed between
posts which were withed together. The whole
M^as covered with clapboards. The open end was
the highest, and answered the purpose of door,
window and fireplace. This fashion was often
changed in some particulars. Sometimes the
back end was built against a large log, and poles
only on the sides. Frequently the roof was only
brush or bark. Hunters' camps were still less
substantial. Four forked poles were driven into
the ground, connected at the top by other poles
40 THE SECOXD FAMILY
laid across and covered with bark, while brush
was pilej:l around the sides. Sometimes the bet-
ter class of camps were supplied with bark floors.
These were of course only intended to aflbrd a
shelter for the family until a cabin could be
The Brooks camp was covered with bark, and
the sun soon curled it up until it was very little
protection against rain. But Mr. Brooks soon
built a cabin and moved his family into more
comfortable quarters. He cleared three acres of
ground, and planted it in corn that spring. He
also resumed his usual employment of trading
with the Indians, hunting and trapping. At one
lime he took one hundred and eighteen raccoon
skins to Fort Wayne and sold them. He always
preferred teaming to hunting, and after the coun-
try became somewhat settled, that was his chief
These years passed slowly and drearily' for
Mary Brooks. Her husband was absent most of
the time ; she had no neighbor with whom to ex-
change visits, and the calls of Indians or travelers
were few. It seemed to her as if she was caged
in a wilderness, out of which she could not even
see, much less escape. Much of the time she was
sad and lonely. Her heart yearned for society and
friends. And no wonder, for she lived there seven
years loithout seeing any other house than hei'
OF SETTLERS. 41
own! Think of that, village mothers, whose
neighbors, within a few steps from your door, are
counted by scores ! Think of that, farmers'
wives, the music of whose ringing farm-bell is
answered by the sweet chimes of half-a-dozen
neighboring ones ! Seven years in the wilder-
ness, without neighbors ! Though the Israelites
were kept in the wilderness, they had their whole
tribe of relatives for company.
But she had other trials. While living in this
lonely condition, a man named George Porter and
family, now a resident of Blackford County,
moved through there and settled oa the prairie by
the Godfrey Farm. This made no nearer neigh-
bors, for it was twelve miles there ; but Porter
and Brooks would sometimes go after provisions
together. One time they went to Newport,
Wayne County, on this errand. As was frequent-
ly the case, they were unexpectedly detained sev-
eral days, and Mrs. Brooks, with five children,
found she was entirely out of flour or meal. She
had plenty of cheese, milk and sugar, and upon
these they lived for three days. They suflfered
much, especially the children, until Mr. Por-
ter came along with some meal, which Mr.
Brooks, who was a long distance behind, had sent
forward. Mrs. Brooks tells of a similar occur-
rence at Ridge ville, while Mr. Lewallen was
building the first mill at that place. He had a
42 THE SECOND FAMILY
number of hands at work, av/i orot entirely out of
Hour and meal. The hands were called together,
and Mr. Lewallen stated the case to them. They
were all so anxious to get the mill done, the}^ said
they would work without bread while he went to
mill. The}^ did so, and worked a whole week
without bread ! They had, how^ever, plenty of
meat, potatoes and squashes.
Mrs. Brooks had carefully taken up her apple
tree nursery on the prairie, and set it out at
Cherry Grove. There were thirty-three in all,
and when they reached the proper size, she had
them set out as an orchard. This pioneer orchard
grew rapidly, and by the time the country was
being generally settled, bore an abundance of fine
fruit. To this da}'' thirty-one of those trees are
living, still luxuriant and prolific. They are now
extraordinarily large trees. The body of one, two
feet above the ground, measures five feet and two
inches in circumference, while the top spreads out
to forty feet in diameter. The body of another is
five feet in circumference, and the top forty-four
feet in diameter. The writer measured them in
December, 1861. At that time the joists in front
of Mrs. Brooks' fireplace were hanging full of nice
drying apples, while a basket of the beautiful
fruit was sitting near to regale the visitor. That
year, while most orchards failed, she had a boun-
tiful supply. It is the oldest orchard in Jay
OF SETTLERS. 43
County, and for thirty years those mammoth ap-
ple trees have rewarded a hundred foki her early
foresight and care. This is what came of the
seven choice apples.
Ahoat the year 1833 a man named William
Van Sickle and his family came through there
from Muncie, on their way to Fort Wayne. As
he was out of money, he concluded to stop a short
time at Cherry Grove. Accordingly he built a
cabin and staid there three years. This was the
lirst white neighbor Mrs. Brooks had had for ten
years ; but they were mere sojourners, and moved
At last, after long years of waiting and hoping,
settlers began to move in with their families, their
industry and their civilization. The wilderness
now began to look like a neighborhood, and Mary
Brooks was greatly rejoiced. The first one who
moved near them was Mr. Adam Zeigler, who
settled within on6 mile and a half. Mrs. Brooks
was so delighted to have a neighbor, she thought
it was but a "few steps" to Mr. Zeigler's.
John Brooks died on the 4th of February 1844,
of dropsy. Kev. George C. Whiteman preached
the funeral sermon, and Mr. Timothy Stratton was
Administrator of the estate. Thus departed the
tirst man who became a permanent resident of
Mrs. Brooks still lives in widowhood, in a log
44 SECOND FAMILY OF SETTLERS.
house built by her husband, in the southeast cor-
ner of Knox Township.* She is the mother of
eleven children. Three of lier sons were born
March 4th, viz. : 1824, '27, '31. She is now in
her sixty-fourth year. Her life has been rough
and wild, and full of privations and suffering, yet
she retains more of womanhood than could rea-
sonably be expected. While giving the author
these sketches, the painful recollections they
brought up often caused her to weep. Let us
honor her as the oldest inhabitant of Jay County
still living within its limits.
* See map.
ORMAN PERKING THE HAWKINS FAMILY AND THEIR
Several years after Peter Studabaker left his
cabin on the Wabash at New Corydon, Orman
Perring and family came there, making the third
family of settlers in the county. The exact date
of his arrival is not known. Mrs. Studabaker
gives it as about 1826. The "first cabin," how-
ever, was already gone. It had been pulled
down, a few logs at a time, and made into rafts on
which travelers crossed the river. Mr. Perring
lived there until about 1837, when he moved
down the Wabash. He lived chiefly hy hunting
and keeping travelers who passed that way.
On the 8th day of March, 1829, two families
moved into Jay County and settled on a beautiful
bank at the forks of the Little Salimonie. The
46 THE HAWKINS FAinLT
men, Johtn J. Hawkins and George Tucker, had
been out the fall before luokinij^ fur land, and con-
cluding to settle on the Saliinouie,had built three
half-faced camps, and now brought their families
It was the first warm, beautiful spring day, and
all nature seemed waking from its winter slum-
ber. It was an appropriate time for the settle-
ment of a pioneer family. The foundations of
rugged Winter were breaking up, and mild,
charming Spring was delightfully rei?uming her
sway. So these families had broken away from
the busy, selfish, conventional society of an old-
settled country, to enjoy the freedom and warm-
heartedness of the wilderness. They came from
Eaton, Preble County, Ohio, and though the dis-
tance was but fifty miles, it took them eight days.
Their camps were built against the side of an im-
mense log, covered with bark, the cracks stuffed
with moss, and the front end open for a fireplace.
The "Recollections, by J. C. Hawkins," speak-
ing of this, says : " That fire-place was ' as big as
all out doors,' and it was easy to suit our fires to
the changes of weather. If it was warm, we
could use a bundle of sticks that a boy could car-
ry; if it was cold, we could put on several cords
at a time, and have plenty of room for more."
Their " back-logs" and "fore-sticks" were drawn
to the fireplace by the team.
AND THEIR ANCESTORS. 47
Mr. Hawkins and his family were delighted
with the country ; but Mrs. Tucker was so much
dissatisfied with it that she soon prevailed on her
husband to move back to the old settlement, leav-
ing their neighbors alone in the wilderness.
As the Hawkins family were so intimately con-
nected with the early history of the country, a
sketch of them will be in place here : The ances-
tors of John J. Hawkins emigrated from England
early in the 18th century, and settled on the
Shenandoah River, in the Colony of Yirgiuia.
They were slaveholders, and spent their time in
horse-racing and fox-hunting with hounds. They
were descendants of Sir John Hawkins, of whom
Blake's "History of Slavery and the Slave
" Sir John Hawkins was the first Englishman
who transported slaves from Africa to America.
This Was in 1562. His adventures are recorded
by Hokluyt, a cotemporary historian. He sailed
from England in October, 1562, for Sierra Leone,
and in a short time obtained possession of 300 ne-
groes, partly by the sword and partly by other
means. He proceeded directly to Hispaniola, and
exchanged his cargo for hides, ginger, sugar, &c.,
and arrived in England after an absence of eleven
months. The voyage was very prosperous, and
brought great profit to the adventurers."
From the family of one of the four brothers
sprang Samuel Hawkins, who at the age of sixteen
48 THE HAWKINS FAMILY
ran away from home and engaged in the Revolu-
tionary War. At the close of the war he married
Christian Worthington, joined a company of emi-
grants, and settled in Bourbon County, Kentucky,
and was engaged in the Indian Wars, and after
General Wayne's treaty came to the Ohio Terri-
tory, was the first white man who moved across
the Miami, and soon after settled where the town
of Eaton, Ohio, now stands. When the war of
1812 broke out he became a colonel. A call was
made for thirty-days' volunteers, to go to the relief
of Fort Wayne, which was besieged by the In-
dians. He went, and when within about nine
miles of the place he was, through a mistake, shot
by one of his own men, which terminated his life
in about one year afterward. His son, John J.
Hawkins, was born in Bourbon County, Ken-
tucky, on the 25th of September, 1789. He mar-
ried Nancy Sellers, and at that time could neither
read nor write ; but his wife became his instructor,
and he soon possessed sufficient business qualifica-
tions to be elected Sherifi" of Preble County, in
which capacity he served for two terms with
popularity. In some speculations he lost his
property, and sought a home in the wild lands of
Indiana. In the war of 1812 he was a lieutenant,
and had been a scout through the country border-
ing on the Mississinewa, and had visited it after-
ward on hunting excursions. His wife, Nancy
AND THEIR ANOE8TOK8. 49
Hawkins, was the daughter of Nathan Sellers, of
Irish descent, and was born in the celebrated
county of Bourbon, Kentucky, on the 4th of June,
1T89, to which place her father had moved from
Nathan Sellers served in the Revolutionary
"War, and distinguished himself in the battles of
Brandywine and Germantown. While in Ken-
tucky he became a magistrate, and finally Sherifi",
which office he resigned because of the inhuman-
ity of the laws he had to execute. A common
mode of punishing negroes there was to nail their
ears to posts, and then whip them ! Although
offered one thousand dollars per year for the dep-
utyship, he refused to have anything to do with
the execution of such laws. He was strongly
opposed to slavery, and seeing no prospect of its
abolition in Kentucky, he moved to Ohio in 1809,
and in 1826 died as he lived, a consistent Chris-
tian. Several of the ancestors of Nancy Haw-
kins served with Daniel Boone in the war with
the Indians, and were victims to the tomahawk
There were six children in the Hawkins family
when they reached Jay County, as follows : Sam-
uel, the oldest, then aged eighteen, Nathan B.,
Benjamin "W., A valine (afterward the wife of
James Simmons, of Eandolph County), Joseph
C, and Caroline (now the wife of B. W. Clark).
50 THE HAWKINS FAMILY
As soon a~ they were settled in their camps, with-
out waiting to build a cabin, Nancy Hawkins says,
" every one old enough to pick a stick went to
work to clear some land." They cleared and
planted that spring about seven acres, and raised
a fine crop of corn and garden vegetables. Though
they had but three dollars in cash when they
arrived, they managed to secure an abundance of
the necessaries of life.
During the summer and next winter Mr. Haw-
kins spent much of his time in hunting. Killing
game was one of the principal means of support
for all the earliest settlers. It provided meat for
their families, and the sale of skins and furs sup-
plied them with money. In October Mr. Haw-
kins built a comfortable cabin, and moved into it,
having lived in the camp fof eight months. On
the last day of the year he went hunting, and
killed three deer near together. " After dressing
them, he hung the two largest without difficulty ;
the third being a small one, he did not . ke the
necessary pains to fix a suitable place, an while
endeavoring to slide it up the side of a tree with
a fork which proved to be too limber, it fell and
wrenched liim severely in the chest. He was not
alarmed at first, but hoping further success, he
returned slowly homeward, and as he had become
warm by his exertions, he took a violent cold, and
his feelings were such as to convince him that his
A^TD THEIE ANCESTOES- 51
work was done."* From that time forward he
declined. lie went to Eaton, and remained sev-
eral months, receiving the best medical attention,
but it was of no avail. His physicians told him
his case was hopeless. Finding that his days were
numbered, he was very anxious to return home
and die in his cabin with his family. After his
return an Indian called Doctor Duck exhausted
all his Indian arts to cure him, but in vain. He
died on the 15th of March, 1832. Thomas Shay-
lor and Joseph Williamson, a young man who
lived with him, dug the grave, assisted by the
orphan boys. The next day he was buried. Those
present from this county were Thomas Shaylor,
William Brockus and Philip Brown, and their
wives, and Joseph Williamson. A few persons
from Randolph County were also present. That
was the first death and burial among the early
residents in Jay County.
The grave was just in front of the cabin, over-
looking the Salimonie from a high bank, but not
now alone. Other graves have since been dug
there to receive the mortal remains of loved ones
of the family. One son of the pioneer, Judge
Nathan B. Hawkins, a daughter, Avaline Sim-
mons, and several grandchildren are sleeping by
his side. George Bickel, one of the -earliest pio-
* " Recollections."
52 THE HAWKINS FAMILY
FIRST CEMETERY IN JAY COUNTY.
neers, and others, are also buried there. The
marble shown in the centre of the cut above marks
the tomb of Mr. Hawkins. The modest inscrip-
tion is :
JOHN J. HAWKINS,
who diedMarchlS, 1833,
aged 43 years.
The next stone to the right shows the grave of
The estate was settled up, and ISTancy Hawkins
had just one hundred dollars' worth of property
left her ; but this pittance, coupled with her own
AND THEIK ANCESTORS. 53
perseverance and fortitude, and the energy of her
oldest son, Samuel, kept the family together, and
they prospered. She entered the land by sending
her son Samuel to Fort Wayne with a yoke of
oxen of her own raising, which he sold and paid
for the land. They passed through many hard-
ships, however, until the country became pretty
well settled. The boys cleared land, carried mail,
hunted, and "showed land" to strangers. In
these pursuits they obtained a comfortable liveli-
hood. Some incidents which happened while the
boys were carrying mail will illustrate their love
of principle as well as one phase of life in Jay
County in those early days.
THE FUGITIVE SLAVES,
8AMUEL and B. W. Hawkins carried the mail
by turns, from Winchester»to Fort Wayne, by way
of Deerfield, Hawkin's Cabin, New Corydon and
Thompson's Prairie. One evening in the month
of February, 1834, Samuel reached his mother's
cabin, on his return from Fort "Wayne, while a
heavy, snow was falling. It was already about
ten inches deep, and continued to fall so fast that
objects could be seen only a few rods from the
door. It was a dreary night out doors, but the
family were enjoying themselves around a com-
fortable cabin fire. A loud rap was heard at the
door, and, upon its being opened, eight negroes,
six men and two women, presented themselves
and begged for a night's lodging. Their request
was granted. The men were all common looking
negroes, except one. He was tall, broad-chested,
THE FUGITIVE SLAVES. 55
very muscular and well proportioned. He
possessed affable manners, and an intelligent
countenance, and was the leader of the company.
One of the women was about twenty years of age
and very black ; the other was a mulatto, and the
wife of one of the men. She was thinly clad and
in feeble health. The canal through Fort Wayne
was then being dug, and was attracting laborers
from great distances. This company said they
were going to work on this canal. The next
morning they started on their way northward, and
Samuel Hawkins went on to Winchester with his
mail. There he learned that the negroes were
fugitive slaves, and met their pursuers, who had
been waiting for him. They asked if he had
" met " the slaves. He replied that he had not.
This was technically true, but was designed to
deceive the man-hunters. There were then two
routes from Fort Wayne to Winchester ; one by
the way of the Hawkins' Cabin and New Cory don,
the other by Brooks' and the Godfrey Farm.
Supposing, from Samuel's reply, that the fugitives
had not gone this road, the slave-holders took the
other route, feeling certain that they were on the
right track. The reward for the apprehension of
the slaves was^ $1,000, and Samuel Hawkins, by
simply giving the information in his possession,
might have taken the money. It was a great
temptation for one so young and needy, but he
56 THE FUGITIVE SLAVES.
did not for a moment entertain a thought of be-
traying the fleeing company. He said if they
would undertake that long, dangerous and woary-
soma journey on foot and through the deep snow,
to gain their " Liberty," he could not lind it in his
heart to betray them into bondage. lie had the
feelings of a man in his bosom, and acted accord-
ingly. A¥hen the pursuers took the wrong track,
he hastened to return, and overtook the fugitives
at the Wabash where JNew Corydon now stands.
The snow was so deep, and progress on foot so
difficult, that they had only been able to reach
that distance. Thinking to have some sport, he
rode up hastily and cried out, "Run for your lives,
your masters are after you !'' The feeble woman,
who was several rods behind the others, uttered a
wild shriek and sank down in a swoon. The men
were all armed with flint-lock guns, and the first
word spoken was by their leader, "Look to your
priming, boys !" then turning to the mail boy, with
a look of terrible determination, he said : " Young
man, our blood may be poured out like water, but
no7ie of us will ever he taken P'' Such firmness
and daring Samuel Hawkins never before
saw depicted in a human countenance, and he
believed it was well for their pursuers that they
were never overtaken. He hastily corrected his
deception and told them the facts. Dismounting
from his horse, the fallen woman was placed upon
THE FUGITIVE SLAVES. 57
the saddle, and he aided her as far as his time
would permit, and, giving them directions, he
returned to his route and never heard of them
afterward. Perhaps they were George and his
company, described by Mrs. Stowe in " Uncle
Another similar anecdote is told by B. "W".
In the fall of 1833, while he was carrying the
mail, four negroes called at his mother's ta stay
all night. They were large, fine appearing, well
dressed young men, carrying gold watches, and had
plenty of money. They stated that they were
from Richmond, and were going to Fort Wayne
to work on the canal. They told their story so
plausibly that it was believed. The next morn-
ing, Benjamin set out on horseback for Fort
"Wayne, with the mail, and the negroes started
also, traveling leisurely on foot. Upon reaching
Fort Wayne, the landlord informed the mail boy
that a gentleman was there, waiting to see him.
He was taken to the room and introduced to Dr.
Campbell, of Kentucky, owner of the celebrated
Warm Springs. Hearing that the boy's name was
Hawkins, the Dr. entered into a very friendiy
chat, and asked many questions about the family,
and soon learned that John J. Hawkins was a
cousin of his. Thus endeavoring to gain the con-
fidence of the boy, he said that he was in search
68 THE FUGITIVE SLAVES.
of four runaway slaves. He described their ap-
pearance so accurately that Benjamin knew they
were the ones who had stopped at his home. He,
however, said nothing. The Doctor went on to
tell how ungrateful the negroes had been ; that
they were his musicians for the Springs, and that
only during the watering season did he ask them
to do anything, and then only to play for visitors ;
that all the rest of the year they were allowed to
go and do as they pleased ; that they went to
Louisville and other cities, and gave concerts, re-
ceiving the proceeds themselves, and that they
were better dressed than their master. "ISTow,^'
said he, " I am ahead of them ; they left Eichraond
for this place and are not here yet. They are
coming on either the Quaker or Godfrey Trace, and
if you will keep on the lookout on the way back,
you will likely meet them, and if you will secure
them and send me word I will pay you 8800 re-
ward." The doctor kept his cousin mail-boy with
him in his room that night, and treated him very
kindly. On his return the next day Benjamin
thought the matter over thoroughly ; he was poor
and the money would be a great help to him and
his mother's family, besides, Dr. Campbell was
his cousin, and had been a special friend of his
father, and he need not do anything but send the
Doctor word. But then, on the other hand, if he
accepted the money his conscience would not be
THE FUGITIVE SLAVES. 59
clear. Should lie take $800 for sending four men
into life-long servitude ? The temptation was very
great, but this thought settled him in the deter-
mination not to do an act which would afterward
make him unhappy. Having decided to do right,
and supposing he would soon meet the fugitives,
he went cheerfully forward through the long-
woods, whistling a favorite tune. He met them
at Yellow Creek, in Adams County, and told them
they were in the wrong road. They inquired why.
He told them they were runaway slaves and that
their master was at Fort Wayne ready to take
them when they arrived. They boldly denied
being slaves, but he told them where they came
from and who was their master, and they were
forced to acknowledge the truth. He then said he
did not believe slavery was right, that he hoped
they would escape, and that if they would turn
back a few miles he would put them upon a road
by which they could go around Foi't "Wayne.
They were deeply cast down and much alarmed,
and fearful that he was trying to betray them
into a trap. But thej finally took his advice,
and went back with him, walking very rapidly,
bade their rescuer farewell and took the other
Seven years afterward, when B. W. Hawkins
had a family, was living in Portland, and was
Sherifi:' of Jay County, an uncle of his, named
60 THE FUGITIVE SLAVES.
Bird Hawkins, from Eaton, Ohio, visited liim, and
Joseph C. Hawkins was also at his house. This
Bird Hawkins was a very wealthy, aristocratic
pro-slavery man, and, finding that J. C. Hawkins
was a free-soiler, he undertook to show his erring
nephew the foolishness of such a belief. Joseph
was always ready for an argument, and so they
went into a debate. Finding that he w\as not con-
vincing his young relative of the divinity or
christianizing influence of slavery, Mr. Hawkins
said he w^ould give an instance which would show
beyond question the wickedness of "abolitionism."
He then related as follows :
" Last summer I spent the watering season at
Dr. Campbell's Springs, in Kentucky, and he told
me of a great loss he had sustained. You know
he is our cousin and a very nice man. He had
four well-trained musicians whom he kept in the
highest style of luxury and ease. They played for
company during the watering season, and had all
the rest of the year to travel over the state and
make large sums of money for themselves. They
were better clothed than their master, and enjoyed
all the pleasures the country afforded. But while
they were giving concerts in Louisville, they
crossed the Ohio river and escaped into Canada.
He expended much money in hunting for them,
and finally got a letter from them saying they had
landed safely, had joined the king's army, and
THE FUGITIVE SLATES. (5X
that they would never have left him except that
at his death thej would have been sold. The
Doctor immediately set out for Canada, and tried
by every means in his power to induce them to
return. He offered to make out their free papers
in advance, and then pay them a high price if
they would return to the Springs. He was im-
mediately arrested and thrown into jail, charged
with trying to induce the king's soldiers to desert,
the punishment for which was death. He sent to
Kentucky for a lawyer, and after much trouble
and an expense of $1,000, he was released from
prison and allowed to return home. ]^ow yon
see how kind Dr. Campbell was to his slaves, and
how outrageously they treated him."
Joseph replied that the case was an unanswer-
able argument for his side of the question ; that it
showed how strong was the love of freedom in the
human soul, if these slaves would prefer to leave
all their luxurious living and endure the hard-
ships of a soldier's life, tor its sake.
During the relation of the story, E. W. Haw-
kins was sitting by, smothering a hearty laugh,
for it was the first he had heard of the slaves since
he had left them in the woods, while neither Bird
nor Joseph knew of the part he had borne in the
•<'iiiif3kJj ■T;l">''j.i"iv-5'l' jfiir
%^tn-.n'*«i» ;«liwfriji3- -^-^ li;*?- iS;;-i 'i-ifif I'ljiicMi
WILLIAM SIMMONS LOST' — FOUND.
Late in January, 1832, William Simmons, from
Henry County, Indiana, came to visit liis brother-
in-law, Thomas Shaylor, who lived on the Salimo-
nie, three miles above Portland. The weather
had been very stormy for several days, and the
snow lay upon the ground ten or twelve inches
deep. The bushes and limbs of the trees were
bowed by the weight of snow that hung upon
them. But a tierce west wind came up, scattered
the snow, and the weather became extremely
cold. Mr. Simmons called at the cabin of John
J. Hawkins, who was then an invalid, and inquir-
ed the way to Mr. Shaylor's, saying that he would
return that way the next day. But the next day
WILLIAIM SIMMONS. 63
"passed, and lie did not come ; and the Hawkins
family were uneasy lest their stranger friend had
got lost and perhaps frozen. On the morning of
the third day, Mr. Shaylor called at Mr. Haw-
kins', inquiring for the lost man. He stated that
Simmons had gone hunting, but had now been
absent two days and nights. All were much
alarmed, for in all probability he had become
bewildered and lost. In the deep snow and
terrible cold he would perish. Shaylor, who had
been drinking for several days with some boon
companions from the Mississinewa, inquired of
Mr. Hawkins what should be done. The " Eecol-
lections" by J. C. Hawkins on this point says:
" Father told him that what they decided to do
must be done at once, for if the man was lost he
"was exposed to peril in various ways ; — he might
have lost his flint or wet his powder, or become
bewildered, like ' Limber Jim,' or it was possible
that the wolves might have attacked him. ' Sam,'
said he, addressing the eldest son, 'you see how
it is. Shaylor and those other men are not able
to stand much so soon after their spree ; it there-
fore remains for you and Edward Simmons to do
what is to be done. What do you say to it?' His
answer was, ' I'll make the trial.' 'Well, then,'
father added, 'get ready; you have no time to
lose. You need no gun ; take my tomahawk ; —
your knife is good ; carry several flints and the
64 WILLIAM SIMMOKS.
best punk ; set lire occasionally to dry trees, so
that if you liud him you can carry him to the
nearest, thereby you will save time. If he is
benumbed and drowsy, don't bring him too close
to the lire, but rub him and make him take exer-
cise. If his feet are much frozen, cut a hole in
the ice and put them in, or rub them with snow.
Don't let him eat too much at once. And now
remember your mother will not expect to see you
until you can bring tidings of the lost man !' "
Thus explicitly directed and equij^ped, the
two young men hastily entered the snowy woods.
Shaylor and his companions followed a short dis.
tance, but soon turned back. After traveling
three or four miles the young men came to his
track ; following this a short distance, they found
he had been crossing his own path, and must be
completely bewildered. About 11 o'clock they
found him. He was in a terrible condition. He
was slowly dragging himself along, both his feet
being badly frozen and burned. He would put
his stick forward and then draw himself up to it.
In this way the poor man was endeavoring to
save his life. He was so exhausted by hunger,
exposure and suffering that, had not help reached
him, he would soon have lain down and perished.
The sight of the young men greatly rejoiced him,
foi' he hoped to be restored to his family. He was
found on the knoll where Liber College now
LOST FOUND. 65
stands, between the college building and the de-
lightful Spring on the bank of the Little Salimo-
nie. He immediately asked for something to eat,
and the rescuers happening to have an ear -of
corn with them, parched it for him.
After hunting imtil it was time to return, he
had gone down Butternut to the Salimonie, intend-
ing to take up stream to the mouth of the Little
Salimonie, and then up that to Shaylor's. The
mouth of the Little Salimonie is very narrow —
like a small run — and coming to this, he thought
it could not be the place, and passed on up the
Big Salimonie, one or two miles above Portland.
Finding that he had missed the way, he returned,
and when he reached the little prairie opposite
where Thomas Jones now lives, he was too much
exhausted to proceed further. lie then tried to
strike fire, but his flint entirely failed. He soon
found his feet were freezing. He cleared away
the snow, and by dancing around managed to
keep awake all night. Early the next morning
he again tried his flint, and the flrst stroke made
fire. In thawing his shoes he burned his frozen
feet terribly, and could not again put on his shoes.
He then made a pair of mocassins from the skin
of a wolf he had killed the day before. He left
his gun, and, with the help of a staff, dragged
himself along ; found the mouth of the Little Sal-
imonie, and was going up the stream when found
66 LOST — FOUND.
by the young men. He was immediately taken
to his home, where one leg and the toes and heel
of the other were amputated. He lived for many
years, and afterward revisited the county.
CHAPTER V 1
NANCY nAWKINS THE OLDEST CABIN INCIDENTS.
Nancy Hawkins is still living, and is now sev-
enty-five 3'ears of age. She is in good health,
active and lively. Unusual energy, unfaltering
devotion to right principles, and lull-hearted hos-
pitality are, as they always have been, her distin-
guishing characteristics. She is a passionate lover
of home, and has impressed this trait of character
upon all her children. She still lives upon the
" Old Home Farm," where she and her husband
first settled, and until within the last year in the
log cabin built by him in 1829, ' She is never so
contented as when enjoying the genial warmth of
that great fire-place. Of this institution, so cher-
ished in Jay County — the crowning charm of all
log cabins — we heartily adopt the language of
Mrs, Stowe, in her "House and Home Papers:"
" Best of all, there was in our parlor that household altar,
the blazing wood-fire, whose wholesome, hearty crackle is
the truest household inspiration. I quite agree with one
celebrated American author, who holds that an open fire-
place is an altar of patriotism. Would our Revolutionary
fathers have gone bare-footed and bleeding over snows to
defend air-tight stoves and cooking-ranges ? I trow not. It
was the memory of the great, open kitchen fire, with its back-
log and fore-stick of cord-wood— its roaring, hilarious voice
of invitation — its dancing tongue of flame, that called to
them through the snows of that dreadful winter to keep up
their courage, that made their hearts warm and bright with
a thousand reflected memories."
THE HAWKINS CABIN — SEE IStAP.
That cabin is the oldest one now standing, and
the fourth one built in Jay County, and will never
be torn down while the farm remains in the Haw-
THE OLDEST CABIN. 69
kins family. Ambrotypes of it, with Nancy's
several children and grandchildren, and the old
rocking chair in front, have been taken, and are
in possession of the family. The cut above rep-
resents the old lady standing at the door, though
the likeness is not truthful except as to her size.
Tlie boy near her is a grandchild. Just beyond
the cabin, at the foot of the hill, a spring, over-
hung with beautiful shade trees, issues from the
banks, and the cool water finds its way to the
Salimonie through that family favorite, a spring-
house. She lately told the writer that if they
would only fix the old house so it would not let in
the rain, she would much prefer living in it than
in the new one. A beautiful farm house, erected
by B. W". Hawkins, now stands beside it.
Oh, the old house at home, where my forefathers dwelt,
Where a child at the feet of my mother I knelt ;
"Where she taught me the prayer, where she read me the page
Which if infancy lisps is the solace of age : ^^
My heart 'raid all changes, wherever I roam,
Ne'er loses its love for the old house at home.
The old house at home, the old house at home ;
My heart never changes for the old house at home.
'Twas not for its splendor that dwelling was dear —
'Twas not that the gay and the noble were near ; —
O'er tlie porch the wild rose and the woodbine entwined.
And the sweet-scented jessamine waved in the wind ;
70 THE OLDEST CABIN.
But dearer to me than proud turret or dome,
Were the halls of my fathers— the old house at home.
Though now the old house is no dwelling for me,
The home of the stranger it never shall be ;
And ne'er shall he view it, or rove as a guest
O'er the evergreen fields which my fathers possessed ;
For still in my slumbers sweet visions will come
Of the days that I passed at the old house at home.
When he was elected County Clerk, in 1859,
he persuaded his mother to live with him one
winter ; but when the willows put forth their
earliest leaves, the bright green grass was peeping
from door-yards and fence-corners, and the first
gleeful chirping of the spring-birds was heard,
she went back to the farm, and the fairest tempta-
tions of town life cannot induce her to leave it
again. The farm is a rich and beautiful one, lying
just at the forks of the Little Salimonie, half a
mile froA the village of Autioch
One time the dogs caught a deer near the house,
when Mrs. Hawkins and Mrs. Shaylor were the
only occupants. They took the axe and went to
assist the dogs, which held the animal down, bat
with his fore-feet and horns he would light very
briskly. Whenever there was an opportunity the
ladies would give the deer a blow with the poll of
the axe. But this style of warfare served only
to exasperate. Changing the plan of attack, they
took the edge and gave " hard blows and fast," to
which the deer soon yielded, and after skinning
and quartering, the lady hunters carried it home.
The Indians were the only neighbors of the
Hawkins family for several years. The tribes
who were in the habit of visiting this region were
the Miamies, Wyandottes, Pottawatamies, Sena-
cas and Shawnees. The two latter were very
friendly. They came in the fall to hunt, and in
the spring to trap. While passings through one
time an Indian boy stole an axe. About three
months afterwards they returned, and the boy's
father brought the axe back, saying, "My boy
stole hira. No good boy !"
If they found Mr. Hawkins' ducks far from the
house, they would drive them home, and some-
times they would find his cow mired in some
swamp several miles distant, when they would
come and inform him, pilot some one to the spot,
and assist in releasing the animal. By such little
acts of kindness they showed their friendly feel-
ing toward the white family.
Once an Indian called on Peter Studabaker, at
Fort Recovery, and told him that a very rich man
had moved into the county, meaning John J.
Hawkins. Studakaker inquired ;vvhether he had
many horses and cattle. " Ko," said the Indian,
"he got heap of children and thirteen dog !" It
was the source of much laughter among the
All early settlers are familiar with the name of
the old Indian, Doctor Duck, who remained in
the country a long time after his tribe had emi-
grated to Kansas. He showed much skill in the
treatment of diseases, but could not cure Mr. Haw-
kins, with whom he lived for six months. He
was very religious, and often appeared to be pray-
ing to the Great Spirit. One time he attended
preaching near Deerfield, after which there was a
church trial of an offending member. The old
Indian listened attentively until there was some
conflicting testimony, when he went to the door,
turned round and said to the meeting, " Me go ;
no much good here — too much lie."
About two weeks after Mr, Hawkins died this
Indian went alone to the grave, and there spent
nearly half a day, apparently preaching and per-
forming wild ceremonies. During the year 1835
B. W. Hawkins was employed by a Greenville
firm to buy furs, at forty dollars per month and
expenses paid. He visited ten counties, and pur-
chased of the Indians, in one lot, fifteen hundred
dollars' worth. His employers had offered to
their agents that the one buying the best lot of
furs should be presented with a new suit of
clothes. Mr. liawkins got the suit, from boots
THE PIONEEKS OF 1830.
Sketches liave now been given of the first four
families who became residents of Jay County.
On this account they are given in detail, and,
also, because Pioneer Life can be most truthfully
sketched by a correct history of several individ-
ual families. In the lives of these families, all
pioneers can see likenesses of their own. Yet the
experience of no two are exactly similar. What
golden threads of history might be unraveled at
every family hearth-stone ! What family's history
would not be full of thrilling interest, were the
silver chords of love, and hidden currents of
smiles and tears, joys and sorrows, revealed ?
Put these are too sacred for the public eye. The
limits of this volume admit only of specimens of
Pioneer Life. Henceforward families will be
mentioned only in more general terms, and the
74 THE PIONEEES OF 1830.
events of public history more closely grouped.
At the opening of the year 1830, from the low
chimneys of but three humble cabins the blue
smoke curled gracefully above the tall, vast forests
surrounding them, to mark the beginning of
civilized life in Jay County, As a few bright
stars appear first at evening, and, as the night
draws on, multitudes glitter in the sky, so these
families — "stars of empire" — were the front
lights of that thronging civilization that is follow-
ing. They were Orman Perring, John [Brooks
and tlie Hawkins family. At that time, although
Brooks had been a settler there for eight years,
the others knew nothing of him, nor did he of
them. Thus dimly did the light of civilization
shine in that region at the opening of this decade.
In the spring of 1830, James Stone and Wil-
liam Cummings visited Ft. Recovery. They knew
Peter Studabaker, for, three years prior, while on a
visit to the St. Joseph country, they had enjoyed
his hospitality. They selected land in Noble
Township and went to work, planted corn, killed
large numbers of deer and found many bee-trees.
Greatly pleased with the country, when autumn
began to tinge the forest with yellow, Mr. Stone
brought his family from Gallia County, Ohio.
This time he was accompanied by Henderson
Graves, who had married his daughter the even-
ing before starting. William B. Lipps was living
TJSE PI0NEEK8 OF 1830. 75
near there at that time, but how long he had been
there is not known. Stone bought him out and
he moved to Greenville.
The two families lived in a camp about six
weeks, then built a cabin. In October, John J.
Hawkins came there, hunting some cattle, and
they learned, for the first time, that they had a
neighbor within six miles.
The country abounded in such luxuries as tur-
keys, venison and honey. The greatest dithculty
was the want of a mill, there being none nearer
than Greenville. But Peter Studabaker dressed
a couple of " gray heads," and constructed a horse
mill which served the neighborhood for some years
as a corn-grinder. This mill was turned by a
"tug" instead of cogs, which was made of raw
cowhide. In dry or frozen weather the tug would
contract and become too short, and in wet weather
stretch and get too long. Corn was raised in
abundance, with but little work. In 1831 James
Stone sowed 1^ bushels of wheat on 1^ acres of
ground. "When [harvest time was at hand, the
blackbirds came by thousands, and destroyed
much of it ; yet he got 37^ bushels. He
was the first settler in what afterward became
Noble Township, and entered the first piece of
land ever entered in Jay County, November 9th,
1832. He had this honor, however, by but one
day, as Thomas Scott entered forty acres the next
76 THE PIONEERS OF 1830.
day. He was an enterprising, industrious citizen,
and died in the spring of 1848.
Thomas Scott came soon after Stone, remained
a few years and moved to Texas, where he died.
Henderson Graves says that about this time, he
and Conaway Stone cut a bee-tree, and, to their
great surprise, found two swarms in it, from which
they got ten gallons of strained honey. At an-
other time when they were hunting, and at some
distance apart, both shot at the same deer, at the
same instant, neither one hearing the report of the
other's rifle, and each fatally wounded the animal.
These settlers saw that sublime phenomenon of
the shooting stars, which occurred in 1833.
In October, 1830, a boy fifteen years old, and
small of his age, started from his father's house in
Darke County, Ohio, on horseback, to select a
piece of land for their future home. He stopped
for the night three miles north of Fort Recovery,
with David Beardslee, who desired that they
should settle near him. But the boy's father in-
structed him not to select land near another fam-
ily, for near neighbors were apt to quarrel. Tak-
ing a bridle path which Orman Perring had made
from Fort Recovery to the Wabash, he followed
it till he came to the land which was afterward the
farm of the late Elder Ebeuezer Drake. Dis-
mounting, he hitched his horse, blazed a path
to the Liniberlost, and returned just before night.
THE PIONEEES OF 1830. 77
Hoppling his horse and putting a bell on him, he
let him loose. Then, lighting a lire, he lay down
by it, on some bark, and, without even a blanket,
slept soundly. The next day he built a half-faced
camp, (which he called " a three-ended cabin,")
justliigh enough for the boy to stand up in, -and
in that he ate and slept for two weeks, as happy
as a lark, seeing no one except Indians, and an
occasional traveler on the Quaker trace. The In-
dians were very good-natured and familiar. He
traded a pint of whiskey to one of them for a ham
of venison. Asking what w^ould he take it in, the
Indian took a deer's bladder, still wai-m, from his
breast, and received the drink in that. The
wolves would come around the camp every night
and howl terribly. The youth would sometimes
get up and stir the fire in order to see them, but
could not. That boy was Hamilton Gibson. He
was building a cabin for his father's (William
Gibson's,) family. William W. Dole, Peter
Studabaker and three others from Fort Re-
covery helped raise the cabin, which was the
third one in Wabash Township. The next
month William Gibson and his family came,
his daughter Jane, now the wife of Samuel
Arbaugh, being the housekeeper, her mother hav-
ing died in Ohio. After Hamilton was married
and had fifteen acres cleared, a man attempted
to enter the land, and so cheat him out of his im-
78 THE PIONEEES OF 1830.
provements. Tins was a common and shameful
method by which speculators defrauded the indus-
trious early settlers out of their homes and the
fruits of their labor. Afriend loaned him $50, and
without one cent to pay his expenses, he went on
foot to Fort Wayne, and saved his home.
One winter Hamilton went with a team and sled
into Ohio after provisions, to procure which was
a source of great labor and inconvenience to all
the pioneers. When he was crossing Still Water
the ice broke and let him into the stream. Un-
hitching the horses, he tied them to a tree, and
went to a neighbor's and staid all night. In the
morning the stream had risen so that he could not
get in sight oi his horses, and they had to stand
there nearly two days and nights before the water
In those early times Mr. Gibson was quite a
hunter — has hunted four days without seeing a
house. At night, in the winter, he would build
two log heaps, set them on fire and sleep between
them on bark. At one time, hunting a horse that
had a bell on, he did no't find it until it was too
dark to go home. He mounted the animal and
let her go, but, after traveling two hours, she
came back to the place from which thej^ started.
Dismounting, he lay down at the roots of a tree,
without a fire, sung awhile, and went to sleep,
not waking until the morning sunlight was stream-
THE PIONEERS OF 1830. T9
ing through the forest. Reaching home, he found
his wife had been lisrhtinoi: tire from the fences
nearly all night, and was very anxious for his
safety. This was the year to take the census,
and Judge Jer. Smith, of Winchester, then
quite a young man, was appointed Assistant
Marshal of Randolph County and the terri-
tory attached thereto, extending northward to
the line between Congressional Townships 25 and
26. This was the dividing line of the territory
attached to the counties of Randolph and Allen,
respectively, they being the only counties then or-
ganized between the north line of Wayne County
and the north line of the State. J^ear the close
of the summer Mr. Smith came to the Salimonie,
census-taking. Had he desired to enumerate the
rich bee-trees, the droves of beautiful deer, the
families of bears and wolves, with which the for-
ests were then populous, the result would have
ranked the county among the first in the State.
But he found human beings and the products of
labor scarce indeed. While following a trace, in
search of some inhabitants, he met Samuel Haw-
kins, and took from him the census of that family,
and learned that there were two other families in
Thus resulted the census of Jay County for
1830. Could we peer into the dark unknown be-
yond us, and compare with these the census re-
80 THE PIONEERS OF 1830.
turns of 1930, when we, who now make the life
of the county, shall all be gone, and our beloved
forests and then- delightful haunts for game have
faded ^before a busier — perhaps not better — civi-
lization, and when other men and women, other
enterprises and interests, occupy the places we
now. hold — with what strange, intense interest
would we look upon the exhibit !
SETTLERS AND INCIDENTS OF 1831 AND 1833.
During these years new settlers came very
slowly. So, at least, thought the small " advance
guard" of pioneers who were waiting and hoping
for neighbors to come in, and the germs of socie-
ty to spring up around them. It was in the au-
tumn of 1831 that the tinkling of the cow-bell and
the sound of the white man's axe first broke the
wild stillness of w^hat, four years later, became
Madison Township. John Eblin and William
Denne}', with their families, settled there at that
time, and were the first settlers in the township.
By coming together, they avoided much of that
dreariness and many of the severer trials which
met those families who lived their first years in
the county alone amid the wild woods, wild men
and ferocious beasts. However, they passed
through those privations which necessarily follow
82 SETTLEKS AND INCIDENTS.
the pioneer iii his aggressions upon the territory
hitlierto the home of the aborigines. William
Denney lived upon the land he entered, having
done his part toward the development of the coun-
try by opening a large farm, until a few years
since, when he died. John Eblin also cleared a
line farm, then moved into the Osage country, in
Missouri, where, being an unflinching lover of the
Union, he became a victim of rebel hate, and lost
his property, being obliged to flee to Iowa, where
he died in 1863.
'Not long after these men moved in. Con away
Stone built a cabin near where Mr. Abraham Lotz
now lives ; but soon moved across into Noble
To\ynship. About this time, also, Henry Crowell
and John Fox settled there, making quite a
It was during this year (1831) that Thomas
Shaylor moved into the county, occupying the
vacated " shanties " of Mr. Hawkins until he
could build a cabin. This he did upon a branch
of the Salimonie, on what was afterward the Har-
dy Farm, now the property of Lieutenant C. II.
Clark. In 1833 Mr. Shaylor moved down the Sal-
imonie, and became the first settler in Green
In E"ovembcr, 1831, Mrs. Sarah Riddley — a
woman who, during her lifetime, was the wife of
seven ditferent husbands — settled with her family
SETTLEKS AND INCIDENTS. 83
in the southeast corner of Pike Township. Be-
side the enterprising settlement in Madison Town-
ship and the coming of Mr. Shaylor and Mrs.
liiddley, there were no other additions to the
meagre population of the county during that year.
Mr. Philip Brown was the first to arrive in the
new country in 1832. He came March 8th,
and built a cabin just across the road from the
north side of Liber, on the southwest corner of the
farm now owned by Dr. D. Milligan. It was the
first house built in Wayne Township. Though
the cabin has long since been gone, until lately a
solitary peach tree had marked the spot ; but now
nothing remains to remind the passer-by of the
place where it stood. The next year, when Brown
had quite a comfortable improvement made,
James Wier was passing through the country
looking for land. Being much pleased. , with
Brown's place, and learning that it was not en-
tered, he told him that he (Wier) had entered the
land. As it was then termed. Brown had
" squatted upon Congress-land," and had not yet
been able to purchase it. But now, by this unfair
• ^means, he must be driven from a spot he began
to call home, to commence again in the woods.
He was greatly enraged, and made some threats •
against Wier, who went to Randolph County and
swore his life against Brown. A constable named
Robert Parsons came into the settlement and
84 SETTLEES AND INCIDENTS.
summoned B. "VV. Hawkins and Joseph William-
son to assist him in the arrest of Brown, who,
meantime, had started to Fort Recovery. The
settlers in the neighborhood sympathized with
Brown, and would do every thing to aid him, for
they were all mutually interested in seeing that
the rights of all " squatter sovereigns " were
maintained against the speculating land-sharks.
The constable and his "aids" followed Brown's
track, the deputies taking care that their progress
should be very slow. They found John R. Maj's
and his boys grubbing near their house. Haw-
kins asked some rather indirect questions about
Brown, at the same time giving Mays the "wink,"
who, knowing the circumstances, gave the consta-
ble the impression that if Brown was not already,
he soon would be, in Ohio ; at the same time pri-
vately informing Hawkins that Brown was then in
the house eating dinner ! Hawkins then put in
the plea that, it being Saturday afternoon, they
might not catch Brown before the Sabbath. The
constable replied that it was " State's busineBs,"
and he should pay no attention to the Sabbath.
After other arguments, which did not change the
purpose of the constable, the deputies declared'*
they would go no further unless their expenses
;^ere borne. This led the constable to/abandcn
the chase and return home, while the de^Duties
went to the house to congratulate Brown. This
SETTLEKS AND INCIDENTS. 85
was the first attempt ever made in Jay County to
enforce the law. Soon after this Brown and Wier
compromised by the latter agreeing to pay the
former for the improvements made on the land.
Wier then went to work and built a cabin on the
northeast of what is now College corner. B. W.
Hawkins was carrying the mail, and the next trip
he examined the records, and ascertained that
"Wier's story was entirely false. On his return he
at once notified Brown of his discovery. But
Brown had no money and no saleable property
except one horse. The neighbors showed their
generosity by making up $20 for him, and mount-
ing his horse, he set out for Fort "Wayne. He
went to Colonel Samuel Hanna, told him the cir-
cumstances", and offered his horse for $30. Learn-
ing that it was the only horse the stranger had,
Hanna^ told him to keep it, loaned him the
money,, took him home with him for the night,
and next day Brown, having entered the land,
went on his way rejoicing. On reaching home,
he ntlified Wie^to leave tfie premises, which or-
der was soon obeyed. "While Brown lived there his
daughter, about fourteen years of age, and a dog,
ehased a bear up a tree in the cdrnfield, near the
house. Obadiah Winters was notified, and on
coming over, found two or three families gathered
around the tree to see the sport. Some of them
begged of him not to shoot the bear in the head,
86 6ETTLEK8 AND mCIDENTS.
as they had heard that a bear's skull would turn
a bullet, and then the animal would come down
and kill them all. But Winters aimed at the
•head, and the bear fell harmless at the roots of
the tree. About the time Brown settled there,
William and Jeremiah Brockus commenced a
clearing where Obadiali Winters now lives ; but
in a few months sold to James Morrison, who
soon after sold to Mr. Winters.
On the 15th of November, 1832, Mr, Abraham
Lotz and family joined the settlement made the
year previous in Madison Township. There he
has remained for thirty-two years, aiding in vari-
ous ways the development of the county. On
that farm he has raised a large family, most of
whom have identified themselves with the inter-
ests of the county, and some hold honorable po-
sitions as officers. J. C. Lotz, Esq., was appoint-
ed Clerk in the Interior Department at Washing-
ton in 1861, which office he is now tilling with
credit. Abraham Lotz was a member of the first
Board of County Commissioners, and for jAany
years Justice of the Peace in his Tovn'nship. In
the summer of 1833 he opened a Sabbath School
in his own house, which was very successful. The
place of meeting was accommodated to the conve-
nience of the neighborhood, and the school met at
different houses from time to time. That Sabbath
School, the immediate successor of the Indian
SETTLERS AND INCIDENTS. 87
dance, was the first ever held in Jay County !
Mr. Lotz deserves much praise for having been
the iirst to plant, when everything was rough and
wild, and the moral soil unbroken, that most
fruitful nursery of the Church. It was a small
beginning ; but now a score or more of schools,
scattered over the county, with their many teach-
ers and hundreds of puj)ils, their libraries, cele-
brations, picnics, banners and speeches, are the
ripened fruit of that first moral blossom in the
Within the next year or two, John McLaugh-
lin, Edward B. Wotten, "William Money, William
Isenhart, Benjamin Goldsmith and others settled
in the Township. It was a very common thing
then for the Indians to hunt through there. They
were very, peaceable, and would often dine with
their white neighbors. At one time, a very
large, muscular Indian came to help Mr. Lotz roll
logs ; but he was so exceedingly awkward as to
be of no use whatever. A log is still lying on the
bank of the creek there in which the Indians had
cut notches to assist them in walking up the bank.
Jesse Gray also hunted and camped through
those woods at that time.
In August, 1832, John R. Mays, George Bickel
and Henry Glassford came to Mrs. Hawkins', and
selected land in the vicinity. Mr. Mays chose the
farm he now lives upon, because of the beautiful
88. SETTLERS AND INCIDENTS.
spring in the bank, around which are a clump of
trees, and near it a log spring-house, built twenty-
seven years ago. In September these men raised
their cabins, assisted by Eenj. Goldsmith, and
Mays' two sons. Bickel moved out the same fall,
and Mays, fearing some one would take possession
of his cabin and enter the land, staid through the
■winter. On the 4:th of March of the following
spring he and Goldsmith moved to their new
homes — the latter settling where the town of Lan-
caster now stands ; the former having no money,
three old horses, a worn-out wagon, a wife and
ten children. When Mr. Goodrich, of Winches-
ter, sold the clearing of the Portland State road,
Mays took five miles, and cut it out eighteen
inches and under, for fifty-one dollars and twelve
cents. He and his boys did the work, one hunt-
ing while the others chopped. With that money
he entered his first land.
Mr. John James, of Randolph County, was one
of the Commissioners to lay out the State road
from Richmond to Fort Wayne, and Jer. Smith
was his Surveyor. In September, 1832, while
making the survey, they camped on the north side
of the Little Salimonie, where the road now
crosses it, probably attracted by the beautiful
grove, which is now owned by Mr. Jonas Yotaw.
Here they were visited by Philip Brown, of whom
they obtained "roasting ears" and squashes. They
SETTLERS AND INCIDENTS. 89
called him " Governor of the State of Salimonie,"
which cognomen he wore while he lived. They
continued the survey across the Wabash. Previ-
ous to this they had surveyed the road on another
route, which passed two miles west of Portland.
When they reached the Loblolly, Mr. James de-
clared it would sv/amp a black snake, went hack
and surveyed the road now passing through Port-
Daniel Farber and family were the first to move
into the county, in 1834. Of course they
staid the first night with Nancy Hawkins, whose
house was the first resting place for most of the
settlers. They lived with Philip Brown until
Farber built himself a cabin, just opposite the
present beautiful residence of Dr. Joseph Watson,
at Collge Corner. They moved into it before
there were either doors, windows, floor or chinking.
Mr. Farber wanted to put in a floor, but his wife,
Nancy, said she would live on the ground until he
could plant some corn, and so the cabin remained
floorless until September. The cabin is justly
celebrated as the one in which the first election in
the county was held, and in which the first Post-
oflfice was established. Enoch Bowden came that
year, occupied the house the absconded Wier had
built, and afterward moved into Bearcreek Town-
ship. Henry H. Cuppy also came and built the
house known as the "Conner house," on the south
90 SETTLERS AITO INOIUIirNTS.
side of the Salimonie, at Portland, now owned by-
Col. J. P. C. Shanks.
During this year new settlements were com-
menced at three different points in the county. The
first of these was by John Pingry, who set-
tled where he still lives, near West Liberty,
April 10th, having been at Mr, Cuppy's for three
weeks, previously. His was the first wagon ever
driven on the State road, leading north of Port-
land. They had a camp already prepared, and
retired quite late that night. The next morning,
when Mr. Pingry awoke, his wife, Elizabeth, and
two of the boys were clearing a garden patch.
Similar energy has characterized Mrs. Pingry's
life. John Pingry says that spot looked like a
paradise then. The grass and leaves were ap-
pearing in their bright green, many flowers were ■
out, and he could stand in one place and count
160 walnut trees, that would average three feet
feet in diameter. He thought then it was the
best land he ever saw, and thinks so still. He
cleared ground and put in ten acres of corn, but
the birds, squirrels and raccoons destroyed most
of it. During that summer he killed twenty-six
deer, two bears, and skinned sixty raccoons on the
corn-field, which wei'e only about two-thirds of
the number he killed, and declares that he " killed
squirrels enough to have fenced it," From the
raccoon skins he got a hat made, costing $6, which
SETTLERS AND INCIDENTS. 91
lasted twelve years. Like all the early settlers,
they enjoyed a continual abundance of honey,
taken from bee-trees. Thqy had two barrels at
one time. The woods then were covered with
pea vines and wild rye, and grazing was line.
Mr. Pingry avers, and it is corroborated by the
testimony of many others, that the seasons were
very different then from what they are now.
There was more rain and high water, and the
woods furnished much better grazing for stock.
About the first of May, the same year, Samuel
Grissell and Moses Hamilton, from Columbiana
County, were in Winchester, hunting land, but
had not found any that 'pleased them. B. W.
Hawkins saw them, and, by much hard persua-
sion, got them to come up into this region. They
did so, and stopped with Thomas Shaylor, who
lived in a cabin without floor or chinking. The
ground had been swept so nii*ch that there was
quite a hole in the middle of the house. It rained
hard during the first night of their stay, the
ground on which they were sleeping became very
wet, and the hole fall of water. They made se-
lections of land, Mr. Grissell's being that upon
which he still lives. They went home by way of
Fort Wayne, where they bought a canoe and
paddled down the Maumee. Mr. Hamilton soon
moved out, and he became the first permanent
settler of Penn Township. Mr. Grissell followed
92 SETTLERS AND INCIDENTS.
in October followino^, accompanied bj his iamily
of wife and seven children, and Jonathan, Zacha-
riah and Joseph Iliatt. Ilis log house was twenty
by twenty-live feet, fire-place eleven feet wide.
They often drew backlogs into the house with a
horse who had to go across the room and put his
head out the window. That horse is still living,
is thirty-three years old, and the oldest inhabitant
of his kind in Jay County.
In November, Mr. John McCoy moved into the
cabin Shaylor had occupied. He says four ten
cent pieces were all the money he had in the
world. He had to depend npon his gun for a liv-
ing. He was as contented as the young man from
Jay, who, while traveling out from Dayton
with four cents in his pocket, wrote to his friends
that he felt just as well as if he had had " double
that amount." In three years McCoy killed three
The great distance to provisions, and there being
no roads cut out, led the early settlers to make
meal by pounding corn in a " hominy block."
Mr. McCoy and all his neighbors had to go to
Newport and Richmond to find a mill and store.
In a year or tv70 the settlers were greatly delight-
ed that Job Carr was going to build a horse-mill,
but they were as much disappointed when the
first grist ruined the mill, and their hominy blocks
had to be used asain.
SETTLESS AND INCIDENTS. 93
The other settlement made during this year was
in Jefferson Township. Mr. Aaron Dillie was
the tirst settler there. But little is known of him
now except that he was an earnest, consistent
Christian. Mr. Joseph Flesher, who died a few
years since, came next, and, very soon after, in
the autumn of 1834, Joshua Hudson settled on
the land now known as " Baker Johnson's farm,"
having lived for a year previous on Day's Creek,
Bandolph County. While living at the latter
place, after they had retired for the night, there
came quite a shower of rain. When Mr. Hudson
rose in the morning he found the puncheon floor
floatinoj and the house surrounded with water for
fifty yards ! He carried his family to a place of
safety and, by the next night, the water subsided.
In 1S37 Mr. Hudson died, and the family was
scattered. Wm. C. Hudson, Esq., his sou, and
the surviving members of Mr. Flesher's family, are
the oldest living inhabitants of that township.
This year (1834) is known among the settlers
then living in the county as the " hard year" and
the " squirrel year." It was a time of great hard-
ships, caused by the coming of squirrels in vast
numbers, who destroyed the crops. It was called
the " squirrel march or stampede," as those ani-
mals seemed to be emigrating, by hundreds and
thousands, for some cause yet unexplained. The
inhabitants would stand around their fields and
94 ^ SETTLERS AND INCIDENTS.
shoot them all day, but could i^either frighten
them nor percoivably lessen their numbers. The
Hawkins family had fifteen acres of splendid
corn, which, in order to save, they gathered as
soon as it began to harden, and had but fifteen
bushels, which they picked from the centre of the
field. For the same cause the crops failed in
Darke County, Ohio, and the settlers had to go
to Eaton to buy meal. There was not a wagon
then in the Hawkins settlement, and they went
by turns on horseback, occupying five days in
making a trip.
The first marriage in Jay County took place in
this year. Mr. Joseph Williamson married Miss
Maky Ellen Hartup, May 21st, 1834. The
wedding was at Henry H. Cuppy's, and the Jus-
tice was Oliver Walker, of Randolph County.
The license was issued at Winchester. Mr. Wil-
liamson now lives in Wells County. The next
marriage was that of Mr. James Simmons to Miss
Christena Avaline Hawkins, June 24:th, 1834,
by Joel Ward, Esq.
Mr. David Baldwin selected land near John
Pingry in the fall of 1834, and in April of the
next year he and William Baldwin settled there.
They thought it a very wild place, for they would
sometimes stand in their cabin door and shoot the
deer that were browsing on the trees which had
been cut down to keep them from falling on the
SETTLERS AND INCIDENTS. 95
house. David Baldwin opened a blacksmith and
gunsmith shop that year (1835), which were the
hrst shops of the kind in the county. The Indi-
ans were frequent travelers through there then.
David Baldwin was a true pioneer — an active and
very useful man. As a Christian, he was a
Methodist local preacher ; as a mechanic, he was
a blacksmith and cabinet-maker, and as a pioneer,
a farmer, good bee-tree and deer hunter. He
afterward emigrated to Kansas, where he served
under the famous John Brown. William Bald-
win still lives upon the same place.
During 1835 many persons visited the county
and selected land. Every settler's cabin was
crowded with travelers. Early in the spring,
"William and Uriah Chapman came out and
camped near by the spring, where James White-
man now lives, in Bear Creek Township. Two
corners of a blanket fastened to the ground, the
other two tied up with lind bark, in a slanting
direction, served for their camp, in front of which
they kindled a fire. On the 22d of April, Wil-
liam, with his family and father-in-law, George
Lipps, arrived on the spot where he lived until his
death, February 15th, 1862. He first built a shed,
under which they lived, cooking by a log-heap,
for two months, until compelled to build a cabin
for protection against the mosketoes. Like many
others, Uriah Chapman had to travel by night in
96 SETTLERS AND INCIDENTS.
great haste to Fort "Wayne to save their land
from speculators. For several seasons Mr. Chap-
man did little besides provide for travelers. About
half of his time was occupied in hunting to get
meat, and the other half going south for provi-
Mr. Joel Wilson was the first settler in Rich-
land Township, arriving tliere in the fall of 1S35.
James Green had, however, visited the county
previously, and built a cabin in what he then sup-
posed was Delaware County, but which the survey
afterward proved to be in Jay ; but Mr. Wilson
was the first to move with his family into the
township. Most of the earliest pioneers of Rich-
land Township have either moved away or gone
to their final rest ; but Mr. Wilson still remains,
a respectable and influential citizen of the town-
ship. Mr. Green's cabin and an orchard he set
out were situated on Isaac Ketterman's farm, and
were the first improvements of the kind made in
that township. The same fall John Rooth, Ren-
jamin Manor and William Richardson opened a
settlement in the southwest corner of the county.
About this time three new settlers came into
the Camden neighborhood. They were Joshua
Rond, William Swallow and Elihu Hamilton.
William Cofiin then lived in the same house with
Shaylor. Mr. Rond was raised in North Caro-
lina — a Friend — was a pioneer in Wayne County,
- 8ETTLEK8 AND INCIDENTS. 97
then moved to "Winchester, and owned a farm on
which part of that town is now situated. He built
the log house in which he still lives, in the winter
of 1835-'6. There were not men enough in that
region to raise it, and help had to be brought from
"Winchester. He is still living, though in his
In November Peter Daily, accompanied by
"William Carpenter, settled near Joshua Hud-
son, in Jefferson Township. For four years his
business was hunting, in which he was very suc-
cessful. Kaccoon skins were worth $1 a piece
then, and he caught ten in one evening and one
hundred and sixty-eight during the season. For
an otter skin he got $8,50. He and Alexander
Stein went hunting one day — shot but six times,
and killed seven deer. He had hunted so much
with a favorite horse that, though turned loose, it
would stay near his camp until he was ready to
go home. One time he went home without taking
the horse, and on going back, six weeks after-
ward, he found the faithful animal still making
the camp his headquarters.
In March, 1885, Colonel Christopher Hanna,
with a large family, of which H. P. Hanna was
the eldest, settled in Noble Township, where
George Bergman, senior, now lives. They shared
the usual hardships of the pioneers. During a
trip to Greenville for provisions his family suffer-
98 SETTLERS AND INCIDENTS.
ed severely for want of food. Great was their
joy when the returning wagon was heard winding
through the woods. Tlie wet season and early
frost ruined his corn, and while H. P. Hanna
was plowing, a falling limb killed the horse
In 1836 he moved to Portland, and became
prominently connected with the organization of
the county ; was the first Sheriff of the county by
appointment of the Governor, and first County
Clerk, by election. In 1850 he moved from the
county, and died, highly respected, in Tama
County, Iowa, March 23d, 1859.
This year also witnessed the coming of Daniel
"W. McNeal, who was closely identified with the
early settlement of Jay County. He came in No-
vember, 1835. At the organization of the county
he was appointed County Surveyor, which office
he filled for many years. In this capacity he laid
off the county seat, and suggested to the County
Commissioners the name for it, which was adopt-
ed. He afterward held the offices of Justice of
the Peace, School Examiner, Land Appraiser and
Surveyor of Swamp Lands. He also taught
school in the county several years. Althougli he
had some eccentricities, he was possessed of ex-
tensive and varied knowledge ; was especially
well versed in mathematics and many of the phy-
sical sciences. He gloried in having been an ear-
SETTLERS AND INCIDENTS. ^99
ly, consistent anti-slavery man. He lived an
honest and useful lite, and died at Portland in
April, 1864, aged 62 years.
' CKAPTEE IX
NEW SETTLERS AND THEIK EXPERIENCES.
The year 1833 added but few to the scanty-
number of pioneers. One was Mr. Obadiali Win-
ters, from Miami County, who reached the Haw-
kins cabin with his family on the 1st of October,
having visited the country the previous summer.
He bought out James Morrison, and still lives
on the same old farm. It was very common at
that time for hunters from the older settlements
to hunt in this county. Their camps were every
where to be found. But the crack of no one's
rifle was heard so frequently, or was so fatal to
the game, as that of Jesse Gray. His favorite
camping place was near the spring on the Sali-
inonie, now owned by Samuel Reed. Once when
Mr. Winters was hunting, he heard what he M^as
sure was a turkey calling her mate. Soon he saw
NEW SETTLERS. 101
her, and taking the most deliberate aim, was just
touching the trigger when Jesse Gray sprang out
into open view. It so alarmed Winters that he
could scarcely hold his gun the rest of the da}'-,
but not a nerve trembled of the veteran hunter,
who so narrowly escaped.
When Mr. Winters' son John was about two
and a half years old, he was one day at his grand-
father's, Philip Ensminger's. In the morning the
old man went hunting, and without his knowledge
the little fellow followed and got lost. The waters
were very high, and it rained hard during that
night. Great excitement prevailed throughout
the community, and a large number of persons
went to hunt him, which they did the whole night
in vain. A cat which was wont to play with the
child followed them, and repeatedl}^ during the
night came to them, mewed, and then went away
again. They paid no attention to this until morn-
ing, when J. C. Hawkins and Thomas^'Mays fol-
lowed the cat, and she led them direct to the lost
boy. He was insensible, very cold, and nearly
dead. When he revived so as to be able to talk
he saw the cat and said, " Tom, you and me has
been lost." He also said that the cat came to him
several times through the night, and that he saw
a big dog, which was doubtless a wolf.
Mr. Winters made the coffins in those days.
There being no lumber for the purpose, puncheons
102 NEW SETTLERS
were split out of logs, hewed and planed until
the J looked as well as sawed lumber. In such a
coffin a child of Philip Brown was buried on the
north bank of the Little Salimonie, near the road.
That was the first death in Wayne Township,
In this year also the Highlander family came
to the county, consisting of William Highlander,
senior, then about eighty years old, and wife, and
William, Tandy, James, and several others. They
built a log house near Mr. Winters, and after
having cleared several acres, a speculator entered
the land, and they were again without a home.
William and James now live in Portland.
In the autumn of 1833 Edward Buforfl and
family settled near where Samuel K. Williams
now lives, and was the first settler in Jackson
Township, He had been a valuable scout in the
war of 1812, and now he and his sons were famous
hunters. They had as many as one hundred and
fifty traps set at one time. The " pole trap," which
was so often used by them and other hunters,
should be described. A long pole was cut, then
two stakes driven into the ground, one on each
side of it, near one end. These were withed
together at the top ; then another pole was placed
on the first one, the end between the stakes raised
up, and triggers set under it. To these was
attached a string, which ran back between the
poles. Upon the whole was placed a lieavy
AND THEIR EXPERIENCES. 103
weight. Animals attempting to pass between the
poles would touch the string, spring the triggers,
and be caught in the "dead fall." JB. W. Haw-
kins says Buford was the only man he ever knew
who could catch a tbx in a trap of this kind. In
a few years Mr. Buford moved into Bear Creek
Township, where he died in 184:1.
WILD ANIMALS INDIANS FIRE-HUNTING FIRST
ELECTION — LAWSUIT — SCHOOLS.
The wild animals abounding in the forests of
Jay, when civilization commenced its war upon
them, were the bear, deer, wolf, wild cat, wild
hog, otter, gray fox, raccoon, woodchuck or ground
hog, porcupine, mink, muskrat, skunk, opossum,
rabbit, weasel and squirrel. Early settlers claim
to have killed catamounts. Some of these animals
being now rarely seen, should be described. The
wolf has the general appearance of a large dog.
He hunts in the night, lives chiefly upon deer and
rabbits, but kills sheep, hogs, and almost any other
animal when he can. Wolves do not go in large •
gangs except in the winter ; then twelve or fifteen
are sometimes seen in one pack. At other seasons
they go in pairs, except when attended by their
THE WOLF. 105
young. The she wolf generally makes her nest
in a hollow log, each succeeding year occupying
the same place until disturbed, after which she
seeks a new spot near by. The male wolf sleeps
a hundred yards or so distant from her nest, on
rising ground. At evening, when she has young,
she walks a few feet from the nest and howls. He
answers with a terrible roar, goes to the nest, then
away into the woods, and during the night brings
home whatever game he chances to catch. At
sunrise he gives apparently a warning howl and
retires, while the king of day tills the forest with
golden light. The wolf is a shy animal, and never
attacks a man unless when very hungry or in de-
fense. B. "W". Hawkins tells the following story :
Long before white men inhabited Jay County
some Indians were trapping on the head waters
of the Salimonie, in Madison Township. One
Indian went several miles from the camp, alone,
to set some traps. On the way be killed a deer,
which he tied across his shoulders. Returning
just after dark, he heard wolves near him. They
first acted as if playing around him, then came
nearer and encircled him, snapping their teeth
and showing a determination to attack. He shot,
and instantly they were upon him from every
side. He seized his tomahawk and struck at
them in all directions, but one caught him and
^ore the cords from his leg. At that moment he
106 WILD ANIMALS.
cut loose the deer, which they seized, and ran
away. The Indian crawled to a fallen tree, the
roots of which had turned up. Upon these he
climbed and remained until morning, when the
Indians came in search of him. When Mr. Haw-
kins saw him he was a cripple, and had to hunt
Wild hogs are simply tame ones that have run
in the woods until they have become wild, or
their progeny. They sometimes live to the age
of twelve years or more, become very large, and
have a large tusk on each side of the snout. They
are the wildest animals that ever traveled the
woods. They do not root around irregularly like
tame hogs, but always in a straight course, as
if surveying, occasionally raising their heads and
walking several rods. They never attaclc a man
unless cornered. The early settlers killed them
rapidly, and now none remain.
Wild cats were very numerous in Jay. They
are of a brindle color, have the shape of the house
cat, but are four or five times larger. They are a
ferocious animal ; will fight desperately when at-
tacked, and can catch and kill a nest of pigs in
spite of the efforts of the mother.
Two miles below Bortland there is what the
hunters call the " big eddy" in the Salimonie. It
is a place one mile long where the waters are un-
obstructed and calm. It is the best place for
" fire-hunting " on this stream. Before the deer
had fled from the destructive axe and fatal rifle of
the white man, it was the favorite spot with the
Indians for this grand sport. For this reason it
is supposed they made the "two-mile reserva-
tion," which embraced the eddy. Indians fire-
hunt in this wise : They girdle a large pig-nut
hickory near the ground and again twelve or fif-
teen feet above ; then split the bark open on one
side of the tree, which enables them to peel the
tree all the way around the body, preserving the
bark in one piece. The rough, outside bark is
taken off the ends, which are then tied closely. A
stick is put crosswise inside the bark, near each
end, and the result is, a bark canoe — the lightest
boat that floats. At night a very large, lighted
wax candle is set at one end, behind which is
placed a wide board, which throws the light for-
ward and conceals the hunters in the rear of
the canoe. Silent as the night, and slowly the
"frail bark" moves down the stream. The dis-
tant deer, quietly drinking at the water's edge,
sees the glaring light approaching. Beyond is
utter darkness. As if charmed, he gazes intently
at the strange phenomenon. Gradually nearer
draws the canoe. Kot a ripple, nor a breath,
breaks the stillness, until the fatal ball strikes its
innocent victim, and the shores reverberate with
As late as 1833'the Indians visited this eddy to
enjoy, for the hist time, their favorite hunt. Once,
having just made such preparations, Jesse Grray,
senior, came into the vicinity. They immediate -
Ij left, and he enjoyed their camp and canoe. At
another time, when he was fire-hunting, he came
so near the deer that, when shot, it jumped across
the canoe the first bound.*
In 1S34, the families scattered over the south
part of the county began to think their settlement
of sufficient importance to be under the restraint
of law. Prior to this they had enjoyed unlimited
freedom. When Mr. Goodrich, Collector of Ran-
dolph County, came to collect taxes, every man
positively refused to pay. The collector laughed,
said that any one who dared come out there to
open a forest, ought not to pay tax, and returned..
The Commissioners of Randolph County were
petitioned to organize Salimonie Township and
appoint an election.
On the 5th of January, 1835, the Board ordered
that all the attached part of that county should
be organized into Salimonie Township. They
also appointed the first election at Daniel Farber's,
on the last Saturday in January, 1835, Obadiah
"Winters, Inspector. The officer to be elected was -
a Justice; the candidates were H. H. Cuppyand-
Benjamin Goldsmith. Whiskey was free, a bar-
rel having been obtained for the occasion, and
the contest grew very exciting. The only politi -
* Many interesting stories might be related of Jesse Gray,
senior ; but the publication of his life is contemplated, in
which they will more appropriately appear. .....
6 " ■ ^'-■
110 riEST LAWSUIT.
cal question involved was the location of the can-
didates, and Cuppy triumphed. This was thelirst
election held in the County.
When a boy is possessed of a hatchet or a jack-
knife, the temptation to use them becomes irresist-
able. So it seemed to be with these few social
neighbors. By the election of a Justice of the
Peace, they obtained the facilities for going to
law, and litigation commenced. Before this, all
difficulties had been adjusted by third parties,
without officers or fees, which generally resulted
in the belligerent parties " drinking friendship."
Not so when they could boast a " Squire." A
law-suit was waiting for Squire Cuppy when he re-
turned from "Winchester, where he had to go to
get his commission. Mr. "William Bunch and
Philip Brown quarreled about a "cross" dog be-
longing to the latter, who had made some serious
threats, and the former commenced a suit to com-
pel Brown to "keep the peace." The case was
docketed " John Doe versus Richard Hoe, etc.,"
a writ i88ued,a constable deputized. Brown arrested
and the witnesses summoned to meet at Cuppy's
house. The defendant admitted the charge, and was
"bound over " to appear at the higher court. The
most difficult part of the trial, for the Justice, now
came up viz: how to draw a "recognizance."
After much profound deliberation and careful re-
search, a form was found in the statutes, which,
riEST LAWSUIT. HI
though intended for general cases, was given under
the vagrant act. Being a poor scribe himself, the
Justice procured the services of Henry Welch,
who, when he came to that part of the form given
thus, " [John Doe and Richard Roe, &c.,] " sug-
gested that the words in brackets did not suit the
present case, and inquired what should be done?
This was a puzzling question for the " Court,"
but, having duly deliberated, Ciippy announced
with an oath that he wanted it distinctly under-
stood by the people that he was going according
to law^ and the form must be copied as given in
the Statute. So it was copied, brackets and all,
after which the court instructed the securities to
" attend the next term of Court in Winchester, and
deliver Brown up, in open Court, to stand his trial
for vagrancy-'*'' Accordingly, when Circuit Court
opened in Winchester, the securities appeared
with Brown, when the Judge, upon an examina-
tion of the papers, dismissed the case in such
terms, as convinced Cuppy of his unfitness for
Justice of the Peace, and he resigned — a sensible
act, which rarely occurs in these latter days. So
ended the first lawsuit.
The records of the Randolph Board of Commis-
sioners, dated May 5th, 1835, state that all the
territory included in Jay County was constituted
one road district, and William Bunch appointed
supervisor. On the same day, Madison Town-
112 FIRST SCHOOLS.
ship was organized, an election appointed at Ben-
jamin Goldsmith's, on the third Saturday in June,
Abraham Lotz, Inspector. Tliat was the second
election. Another election was ordered to be
held the second Saturday in October, 1835. At
one of these elections James Graves was elected
Justice, went to Winchester for his commission,
and, on his way home, married William Cum-
mings and Matilda Denney.
The year 1835 witnessed the opening of the
first schools in Jay County. The "red man of the
forest" was followed by daring old hunters like
Jesse Gray, who foundthese woods against which
the axe had never been raised, delightful fields
for the pursuit of game. Their camp-fires suc-
ceeded the wigwam, while soon the rude cabin
came. Now, when the wild man was only an oc-
casional visitor, and many hunters were tramping
the forest, schools were opened, and the few
children of the settlement taught to read and spell.
In the summer of this year, two schools were
taught. One in a cabin built by a Mr, Wringer,
situated where Liber College now stands, and
the other in a similar house, situated on what was
afterward the farm of James Rhine, in Madison
Township. The former was taught by Miss Sarah
Tharp, later the wife of Mr. Thomas Ward, of
Winchester; the latter by Mr. Edward Bell
Wotten, who had recently settled there. These
THE FIEST MAIL. 113
pioneer teachers !iave long since gone to their
final reward. The exact date cannot be given
when either of the schools commenced, and it is
unimportant — both these persons are equally de-
serving the profound respect which the people of
Jay will not cease to cherish for the memories of
their first teachers. Soon log school houses dotted
the county. Of the teachers ofiiciating in them,
some were wise and some were " otherwise."
Now the neatly painted frame school house is
taking the place of the dear old cabin with its
mud-and-stick chimney, its clapboard and weight-
pole roof, its knotty, unpeeled, sapling benches,
wide fire-place and bush of wild roses clambering
upon the gable ends. An embryo college now
stands upon the very spot made sacred by such
The first mail carried through this county was
in 1829, by Mr. Ellis Kizer, from Winchester, by
way of the Godfrey Trace, to Fort Wayne. The
mail was not opened then in the county, but this
pioneer herald picked his way on horseback along
a barely discernible path, through three score and
ten miles of wilderness. At the Godfrey village
he could count several times as many Indian huts
as there were white families along the entire route.
He carried it until 1833, when Samuel Hawkins
got the contract, and the route was changed so as*
to pass through the Hawkins settlement. On the
114 FIEST ENTRIES OF LAND.
11th of June, 1835, the first Post Office was estab-
lished in Jay (then called Randolph) County, at
the house of Daniel Farber, who was Postmaster.
The office was then called Saliraonie. It was a
great convenience — persons receiving their mail
therefrom all parts of this, and some from Adams
County. The postage on letters was then from
ten to twenty-five cents. Mrs. IS^ancy Farber per-
formed most of the few duties connected with the
office. Mr. John Conner carried the first mail by
this office, and with the exception of four years,
continued carrying it until 1862, since which time
Mr. Jacob Conkel has been the carrier. In May,
1837, the office was removed to H. H. Cuppy's,
who became the Postmaster, and the name was
changed to Jay Court House.
The following shows by townships all the land
entered in Jay County prior to 1836, in order of
date, and name of the person making the entry,
as taken from the record in the County Auditor's
James Green July 21, 1834 80 acres.
Joel Wilson Sept. 23, 1834. ... 80
Benjamin Manor Sept. 23, 1834 80
Baldwin Smith Nov. 7, 1835 80
EU H. Chalk Nov. 7,1885.... 80
James Green Dec. 21, 1835 40
FIRST ENTRIES OF LAlfD.
No entries were made ia this township until May 10th,
1836, when Daniel Tucker entered 240 acres.
Moses Hamilton June 10, 1834. ... 80 acres.
Samuel Grissell June 10, 1834 ...160 "
" July 7,1835....— "
Jonathan Hiatt July 7, 1835 — "
Samuel Crawford July 7, 1885 — "
George Meek June 10, 1834..
Joseph Flesher July 7, 1835.
James Haworth Nov. 11, 1835.
John Steed Dec. 13, 1835.
Daniel Ertte Dec. 12, 1835.
No entries until April 19th, 1833, when William M. Ruth
entered 40 acres.
Samuel W. Fonts June 28, 1S34 — acrea.
Michael Zimmerman Dec. 16, 1835.
JohnPingry Dec. 19, 1835...
James Marquis Dec. 26, 1835.
Thomas J. Shaylor April 20, 1833.
George Hardy Sept. 28, 1833...,
John R. May.<i Nov. 9, 1833.
Samuel Hawkins Nov. 16, 1833. ,
Isaac Aker Dec. 12, 1833.
William Clark Sept. 14, 1835.,
Charles Wilkerson Sept. 14, 1835...,
George Bickel Dec. 21, 1835.
Nancy Hawkins Dec. 23, 1835.
Curtis Hardy Dec. 29, 1835. ,
Henry Welch Dec. —.1835.,
FIRST ENTRIES OF LAA'D.
James Morrison Feb. 9, 1833. .
Philip Brown Mar. 28, 1833. .
Leander Morrison April 13, 1833. .
Hawkins C. Fonts Sept. 28, 1833. .
Daniel Farber Sept. 30, 1834 .
Henrj' H. Cuppy July 3, 1835. .
Tandy Highlander Dec. 23, 1835. .
Morton Jones Jnne 10, 1834. .
Isaac Huey June 10, 1834. .
William Siberry Aug. 23, 1834. .
John McKissick Dec. 8, 1834.
Conaway Stone Feb. 22, 1C33.
Benjamin Goldsmith Aug. 24, 1833.
Ed. Bell Wotten Jan. 16, 1834.
William Cummings. Ja.n. 16, 1834.
James Martindale June 12, 1834.
John Eblin June 24, 1834. .
William Money June 24, 1834.
Richard Clark Sept. 14, 1835.
William Cummings Sept. 21, 1835.
William Isenhart Oct. 23, 1835.
Charles Sackman Dec. 21, 1835.
Benjamin Goldsmith Dec. 21, 1835. .
James Stone. . . .Nov. 9, 1832, and Oct. 5, 1833. .
Thomas Scott Nov. 10, 1832.
William E. Burns Mar. 27, 1835. ,
Conaway Stone May S.0, 1835. ,
Charles Wilkerson. Sept. 14, 1835.
. 80 acres.
. 40 "
. 80 "
, 40 "
, 40 "
. 80 "
, 40 "
.40 . "
. 40 "
. 40 '•
. 80 "
JOSEPH WILSON. 117
Orman Perring July 24, 1833 66 acres.
F. Bowers and E. Putnam Oct. 4, 1883 3 6-10
William Gibson Aug. 19, 1835 40 acres.
John B. Gillespie. . . .Oct. 27, and Dec. 19, 1835. ... 82 "
Hamilton Gibson Ndv. 2, 1835. ... 40 "
In April, 1836, Mr. Joseph "Wilson, afterward
County Auditor, selected land near Samuel Gris-
sell, who accompanied him to Fort Wayne, to
make the entry. They struck the Wabash at
Adam Miller's, went down stream to Henry Mil-
ler's, where Bluffton now stands, arriving after
dark. Here they met John Conner, carrying the
mall — an occurrence familiar to all northward
travelers for twenty-five years afterward. The
next morning, crossing the river in a canoe, and
swimming their horses, they proceeded on their
journey. Every where the streams were over-
flowing, and several times the water ran over
their horses' backs. At the St. Mary's river thev
left the horses, crossed in a canoe, and walked to
the land office. Early in the July following Mr.
Wilson brought his family fi;om Champaign
County, Ohio. From Joab Ward's they came ma
John Brooks', which place they endeavored to
reach in one day. Failing in this they were com-
pelled to camp out. They were greatly troubled
by the myriads of blood-thirsty mosquitoes that
swarmed around them. Having located wife and
118 JOSEPH WILSON.
children upon the load, protected by the "wagon
cover, he spent most of the night lying upon a
log not far distant, with three or four smoke-tires
around him, and bush in hand to fight off the
biting, buzzing torments. The next evening they
reached Muses Hamilton's, having been two days
coming sixteen miles. Sometimes the road was
too crooked for their long team, and had to be cut
out. In about a week they moved into their own
house, and began clearing away the woods around
it, " to make it look a little like home," — the first
work of every pioneer family. For nearly two
months during the following winter all the bread
for the family of eight was made by pounding
corn in a hominy mortar, sifting out the finest for
bread, the next for " mush," while the coarsest
was boiled for hominy — a convenient variety,
which no mill of later invention can produce from
ORaANIZATION OF THE COUNTY.
The land lying south of the boundary road, in
Jay County, was ceded to the United States by
the Indians in a Treaty made at Greenville, Ohio,
August 3, 1795. The line began at the mouth of
the Cuyahoga River, and, after various windings,
reached Fort Recovery, and proceeded "south-,
westerly in a direct line to the Ohio River, so as
to intercept it opposite the mouth of the Kentucky
This treaty was signed, on the part of the
United States, by Major General Anthony Wayne,
and by the Indians, by the chiefs of the following
tribes : Wyandots, Shawnees, Ottawas, Chippe-
was, Pottawatomies, Miamis, Eel Rivers, Weas,
Kickapoos, Piankeshaws and Kaskaskias.
The land lying north of this boundary line
was ceded to the United States by the Indians in
120 ORGANIZATION OF THE COUNTY.
a Treaty made at St. Mary's, Ohio, October 6,
1818. It was between Jonathan Jennings, Lewis
Cass and Benjamin Parke, Commissioners of the
United States, and the Chiefs of the Miami na-
tion of Indians, viz : Peshawa or Richard ville,
Osas, Ketanga or Charley, and others. In this
Treaty many reservations were made by the In-
dians, two of which were in Jay, as follows :
"One reservation of two miles square on the
Salimonie River, at the mouth of Atchepongqwa-
we Creek," (now called Butternut, from the but-
ternut trees growing along its banks). The other
reserves "to Francois Godfrey six sections of
land on the Salimonie River, at a place called
Lapetite Prairie." The two mile reservation on
Butternut Creek was ceded to the United States
by the Miami tribe of Indians, in a Treaty made
. Octobtr 23, 1834, at the forks of the Wabash,
' below Huntington.
Colonel John Yawter, of Jennings County, was
Chairman of a Committee in the House of Repre-
sentatives, of the Legislature of 1835-6, that in-
troduced a bill, which passed and was approved
February Yth, 1835, entitled "an act laying out
all the unorganized territory, to which the Indian
title has been extinguished, in the State, into a
suitable number of counties, and for other pur-
poses," by which the counties of Jay, Adams,
Wells, DeKalb, Steuben, Whitley, Kosciusko, Ful-
ORGANIZATION OF THE COUNTY. 121
ton, Marshall, Stark, Pulaski, Jasper, Newton and
Porter were al lai^' out.
The following is section third of that act :
That all the territory included within the following boun-
dary lines shall constitute and form a county, to be
known by the name of Jay; beginning at the south-
east corner of Adams County, thence west to the eastern
boundary of Grant County, thence south to the northern
boundary of Delaware, thence east with the northern boun-
dary of said county, to the north-east corner of the same,
thence south to the north-west corner of Randolph County,
thence east with the northern boundary of said county, to the
.State line, thence north to the place of beginning.
This included the territory of Blackford County
which was organized into an independent county
The chief labor of laying out the territory into
counties devolved upon Colonel Yawter, who was
better acquainted with the country than any
other member of the committee, yet, when the
counties were named, he was not allowed the
privilege of giving a name to even one of the
fourteen counties organized by his bill. He
always regretted this exceedingly, as he was very
anxious to name one county Armstkong, in honor
of a brave old soldier of that name who spent his
best days in the northern part of Indiana, and
who finally fell a victim to Indian barbarity.
It cannot be ascertained who gave the name of
Jay to this county. Some member of the Legis-
122 OKGANIZATION OF THE COUNTY.
lature gave the name in an amendment to the bill.
The Randolph County commissioner's record calls
it by this name as early as May, 1835.
John Jay, in honor of whom the county was
named, was the iirst Chief Justice of the United
States Supreme Court. He was appointed Minis-
ter to England, in 1791:, when he resigned the
office of Chief Justice. In 1800, while he was
Governor of New York,- he was re-appointed
Chief Justice, but declined the appointment.
Another act was passed, approved January 30,
1836, by which the county was organized.
Section 1. Be it enacted hy the General Assem-
Uy^ c&c. : That, from and after the first day of March
next, the county of Jay shall enjoy all the rights
and jurisdiction which, to separate and independ-
ent counties, do or may properly belong.
Secs. 2d and 3d, appointed the commissioners
to locate the county seat, made it the duty of the
Sheriff of Randolph County to notify them, and
that they should be paid from the treasury of Jay
Sec. 4th, provided that the first circuit and
other courts should be held at the house of Henry
Sec. 5, made it the duty of the county agent to"
reserve ten per cent, of the money received from
the sale of donated lots for the use of the County
Sec. 6th, set forth the duties of the Board of
County Commissioners, and the 8th placed the
LOCATING COUNTY SEAT. 123
county in the 8th Judicial Circuit and 5th Con-
The following persons were appointed by the
Legislature to locate the county seat : Judge Jer.
Smith, Judge Zachariah Pucket, still living in
Randolph County, Jacob Thornburg,. of Henry
County, who has been dead many years, Mr.
I^athan Coleman, of Allen County, and Mr.
Philip Moore, of Delaware County, who died
about that time. "With the exception of Mr.
Moore, they all met at H. H. Cuppy's the first
Monday in June, 1836, as required by the^law.
Camden, they said, though a pretty site, was too
far from the center, (for they then anticipated that
Blackford County would be stricken off.) The
geographical center of the county, one and a quar-
ter miles north-west of Portland, was too low.
They then viewed the " Sugar-tree " grove, about
one and a half miles south-west of Portland, and
decided that was the most appropriate spot. But
they were falsely told by a man who desired to
enter that land himself, that the owner of it lived
in Union County, Indiana, and would not sell the
land on any terms. They then took eighty acres
on the north side of the Salimonie, offered by Dan-
iel Pied, of Richmond, through the agency of H.
H. Cuppy, and ten acres adjoining, offered by
James Hathaway. Pied reserved half the lots
around the court house square, and one-third of
124 PHYSICAL GEOGEAPHY.
Jay County is eighteen miles long (north and
south), twenty-one miles wide across the north
end, and twenty-two across the south end. The
face of the country is generally level, although
somewhat broken along the water courses. The
surface soil is usually a dark loam, with a subsoil
of clay, intermixed with limestone gravel. There
is a section of country lying toward the northwest
part of the county, embracing about six square
miles, which is in some of its features unlike oth-
er portions. In this section, the surface soil is a
sandy loam, lying upon a gravel subsoil. It is
interspersed with many hillocks or knobs, which
Benjamin Ninde called the Lost Mountains. This
district is chiefly in Penn Township.
There is not much rock in the county. Enough
"grayheads" generally are found to supply the de-
mand for walling cellars and wells. In the vi-
cinity of Antioch and three miles north of Port-
land, this variety of rock prevails extensively. For
two miles above and below New Corydon the
"Wabash river flows over a stratum of white lime-
stone, A mile south of the river this quarry of
stone crops oat in the creeks and runs, but be-
ing in the beds of the streams, can only be quar-
ried in dry seasons. A lime-kiln has been in
operation for several seasons on the south bank of
the river, by Washington Walter, which turns out
lime unsurpassed anywhere. Limestone is also
PHYSICAL GEOGKAPHT. 125
found on the Salimonie some two miles below
The country is very well watered by the numer-
ous streams that take their rise within its limits.
They have so little fall, however, they afibrd but
very little water power. Springs abound along
some of these streams. It was originally very
heavily timbered with beech, hickory, oak, ash,
walnut, sugar, maple, elm, linden, sycamore, &c.
When the tirst settlers came, the woods were des-
titute of an undergrowth. As the settlements be-
came ffcneral, and' fires were not allowed to run
through the timber lands, a dense undergrowth
The county abounds in wild fruits, consisting of
plums, grapes, paw-paws, blackberries, gooseber-
ries, and, in the neighborhood of the Loblolly,
were huckleberries and cranberries.
A belt extends across the north part of Jackson
Township from west to east, varying in width
from eighty rods to a mile, called the Loblolly. It
consists of brushy ponds, wet prairies and small
lakes. Along its border is some of the richest
land within the county. It is thought that near-
ly the entire tract can be reclaimed and made
very profitable for agricultural purposes. Con-
siderable portions of it were conveyed by the
United States to the State of Indiana several
years since, and were by the State sold, the pro-
ceeds of which, after paying expenses, were to be
applied in draining the lands so sold. With this
fund some draining has been done ; the amount
of the fund, however, was insufficient to complete
the work. The county is bounded on the north
bj the counties of Adams and Wells, on the east
by Mercer and Darke counties, Ohio, on the .
south by Randolph County, and on the west by
Delaware and Blackfurd counties.
The following table shows the number of acres
and square miles in each Township.
Acres. Square miles.
Eichland 17,434 13 100 27.
Knox 15,386 71-100 24 ,
Penn 19,174 91-100 30
JefiFerson 22,753 66- 1 00 30
Green 22,705 45 100 35
Jackson 22,986 83-100 36
Pike 22,257 79-100 35
Wajme 23,650 39-100 87
Bear Creek 22,033 68-100 34^
Madison 18,692 92-100 29
Noble 19,901 4-100 31
Wabash 14,733 67-100 33 •
Total 241,692 08-100 377
The county was now (1836) organized. This
fact, added to the reputation the county had gain-
ed for richness of soil, heavy timber, abundance
of game and cheap land, brought new settlers by
hundreds during this and the several succeeding
years. Entering land, building houses, clearing
fields, and cutting out roads, occupied almost ex-
clusively the attention of the people. Prior to
this time there had been, during four years, only
sixty-four entries of land. The following shows
the number of pieces of land entered in each
township during this and the following year:
No entries No entries
in 1836. In 183T.
Richland 45 78
Knox 64 51
Penn Ill 38
Jefft^rson 27 157
Green 24 76
Jackson 82 57
Pike 32 116
Wayne 64 87
Bear Creek 35 80
Madison 28 74
Noble 25 38
Wabash 26 36
Total 563 888
Total for 1836-'7 .1451
Large numbers also came in who did not enter
land immediately. This sudden and numerous
influx — all "early settlers" — precludes all possi-
bility of our even mentioning their names in this
work, much less recounting their experiences.
And, indeed, it is unnecessary. Enough has
been said of the earlier settlers to exhibit pioneer
life in all its important aspects. To add more
from the abundance that might be given, would
be to tire the reader with the repeated narration
of similar occurrences.
COUKTS OFFICERS — ATTOKNETS.
Let us now turn our attention to the necessary
paraphernalia of organization — courts and officers.
By appointment of Governor Noble, Christopher
Hanna notified the people that there would be an
election on the — day of August, 1836, to elect
county officers. That was the first county election.
There were but three precincts : one at B. Gold-
smith's, one at Daniel Farber's, and the third in
Lick Creek Township, now Blackford County.
The following persons were elected : Commission-
ers, John Pingry, Abraham Lotz and Benjamin
Goldsmith ; Associate Judges, James Graves and
Enoch Bo wden ; Clerk, Christopher Hanna; Sher-
iff, Henderson Graves. B. W. Hawkins was a
candidate for clerk, against Hanna, and had the
commissioners' court. 129
vote of Lick Creek Township been returned,
would have been elected. James Graves did not
accept the office of Judge, and Obadiah Winters
was subsequently chosen.
The first marriage license issued was to Casper
Geyer and Kachael Clark, April 11th, 1837, and
they were married on the 18th of April, 1837, by
The first session of the Board of County Com-
misssioners convened at Mr. Cuppy's on the 8th
of November, 1836. H. H. Cuppy was appointed
County Treasurer, Lewis S. Farber Assessor, and
Jacob Bosworth agent to superintend the sale and
conveyance of the lots donated to the county in
Portland. Mr, Bosworth not having been in the
State long enough to be eligible, B. "W". Hawkins
was appointed in his stead. David Baldwin was
appointed superintendent of the three-per-cent.
fund, being three per cent, of the money arising
from the sale of public lands within the State,
appropriated to making roads and bridges. That
office and that of the county agent were very im-
portant offices at that time. Cuppy was granted
a license to retail merchandise for one year for
At a special meeting of the Board, December
5th, 1836, the county seat was named Portland.
Many persons desired it should be called Pied-
ville, in honor of Daniel Pied, who donated the
130 COM^nSSIONEBs' COUET^.
site. Joshua Pennock was allowed ten dgllars
for aiding in clearing off the county seat. After-
ward, John E. Ware, T. N. Jones, William High-
lander, John Martin and others were paid for
laying out and clearing the town site. Mr. Ware
paid his board at Cnppy's by grating corn in the
evening for meal. D. W. Mc]S eal was appointed
County Surveyor. The next month he was ap-
pointed Trustee of the Seminar}^ Fund. Here is
a copy of the order by which the lirst Court House
was erected :
" Wednesday, May 3d, 1837.
" Ordered^ That there be a house erected on
some suitable lot in the town of Portland, for the
use of the county, and that Christopher Hanna
superintend the letting of the same on the 13th
da^' of June next. The terms and descriptions
to be made known on the day of sale."
No direction being given as to the size, price or
materials, such an order, in these days of specu-
lators, would be rather an unsafe specification.
L. S. Farber was allowed $23.27 for assessing
the county. James Marquis was appointed Col-
lector of the taxes for the county. The first tax
assessed was at this term, being $1.25 on every
$100 valuation of property for county purposes,
one cent on every $100 for road purposes, and
seventy-five cents on every poll.
September 4, 1837, the Board adjourned from
the house of Mr. Cuppy to the new log Court
commissioners' couet. 131
House, and allowed Robert Huey $123.25 for
D. W. McNeal was allowed $7.75 for surveying
and platting the town of Portland.
J. J3. Gillespie was granted a license to keep a
ferry where the Quaker Trace crossed the Wabash.
The prolits probably never paid for the license.
Mr. Cuppy resigned the office of Treasurer, and
Hawkins C. Fonts was appointed.
Christopher Hanna was appointed to superin-
tend the building of a county jail.
November Term, 1837. At the opening of this
term Henderson Graves took his seat as Commis-
sioner, as successor of John Pingry, and P. W.
Hawkins as Sheriff.
Thomas Wheat was appointed School Commis-
sioner. In January, 1838, H. C. Fouts was
allowed $11.75 for his services as County Treasu-
rer for four months. At the March Term, 1838,
John Pingry was appointed Loaning Agent of the
surplus revenue fund, and William Yail Collector
of taxes for that year.
January Term, 1839. Contracted with Moses
Knapp to build a public Pound for $17.87^. It
was a post and rail feiice, a i'ew rods north of the
Robert Huey was granted a license to keep a
grocery in Portland. This was the first store of
the kind kept in the place.
133 commissioners' court.
Joshua Pen nock had built a jail, for which he
had received $181 ; but it not being according to
contract, the Commissioners sued him for damage.
It was a log house, poorly built, and stood north
of the present jail.
A man from Blackford County was at one time
convicted of stealing a log chain, and sentenced
to. three or four days' imprisonment. As the jail
would not hold him, Sberijff Hawkins took him
home with him, and kept him there rocking the
. cradle, until his time was out !
November Term, 1839. H. C. Fonts was re-
moved from the Treasurer's office, and William
T. Shull, now of Blackford County, appointed.
At this time Lewis N. Byram was contracted
with to build the walls and roof of a brick Court
House for $1,750, and he was to "warrant it to
be a substantial building for twenty years." Wil-
liam Haines finished the house. The wall was
very poor ; the building was abandoned in 1859,
and in March, 1860 was sold at auction for $153.
In January, 1840, John Pingry got the contract
for building another jail for $800. That was the
old log jail sold for $32 in 1862, torn down and
converted into the wagon shop of y. H. Williams.
The first term of the Circuit Court, in Jay Coun-
ty, was held on the 17th day of April, 1837, at
the house of Henry H. Cuppy, which house is
still standing on the farm of Colonel Shanks, south
FIRST CIRCUIT COURT.
of Portland, Hon. Charles "W. Ewing, of Fort
Wayne, president Judge of the Sixth Judicial
Circuit, and Enoch Bowden, Associate Judge for
Jay County, occupied the bench.
Christopher Hanna, was clerk, Henderson
Graves, sheriff, and Thomas Johnson, of Fort
Wayne, prosecuting attorney.
Jeremiah Smith, of Randolph County, was the
only lawyer present, except the State's attorney.
The grand jury, at that time, consisted of the
following named persons : Hewy H^ Cuppy, Ben-
jamin W. Hawkins, Obadiah Winters, Hawkins
C. Fouts, James Marquis, David Baldwin, John
Pingry, Samuel G. Hanna, Conaway Stone, Wil-
liam Yail, Joseph Wilson, John S. Mays, Daniel
W. McNeal, William Clark, JohnEblin and James
Stone. Henry H. Cuppy was foreman, and An-
derson Ware was bailiff.
This jury found but one bill of indictment which
was against two of its members, H. H. Cuppy and
Daniel W. McJ^eal, for an affray. Cuppy was
tried, defended by Jer. Smith, and found guilty.
McNeal plead guilty. This constituted almost
the entire business of the term. The court was
in session two days.
The two succeeding terms were held by the as-
sociate judges alone, without the aid of president
judge, prosecuting attorney, or other lawyers.
The fourth term was held on the 10th day of
134 COUKT OFFICERS.
December, 1838, before the associate judges. The
court, at this term, assumed more importance
tlian liitherto. Jeremiah Smith acted as prose-
cuting attorney. Several cases were tried, both
criminal and civiL
Jacob Bosworth, Benjamin P. "Wheat and An-
drew E.ied were appointed school commissioners
for Jay County. There was quite an array of
lawyers in attendance.
In January, 1839, the Eleventh Judicial Cir-
cuit was formed, of which Jay County constituted
a part. Morrison Rulon, then a young man, who
had but recently been admitted to the bar, was,
by the legislature, elected judge of this new Cir-
cuit. He resigned, without ever having held a
court, and David Kilgore was, by the Governor,
appointed to till the vacancy.
Judge Kilgore held the office under his ap-
pointment until December, 1839, , when he was
elected by the legislature, and held the office until
the spring of 1816.
Judge Kilgore has since then served in the con-
vention for the revision of Constitution of Indiana,
was speaker of the House in the Indiana legisla-
ture, and represented the tifth district of Indiana,
in Congress, two terms. He still resides in Dela-
ware County, Indiana.
In December, 1815, Jeremiah Smith was elect-
ed Judge of the Eleventh Circuit, and served
COURT OFFICERS. 135
until the sp.ing of 1853. He was succeeded by
Joseph Anthony, of Delaware Connty, who pre-
sided over the Circuit Court of Jay County two
years. He is still a citizen of Delaware County.
In January, 1855, the Thirteenth Judicial Cir-
cuit was formed, Jay County constituting a part
of it. Judge Jeremiah Smith was appointed Judge
of this Circuit, by the Governor, to serve until
the next general election. Under this appoint-
ment he held two terms of the Jay Circuit
In October, 1855, Jehu T. Elliott was elected
Judge of the Thirteenth Circuit, and was re-
elected in 1861. He is at this time Judge of the
Jay Circuit Court.
The first associate judges of Jay County were
Enoch Bowden and Obadiah Winters. Judge
"Winters served from 1837 until 1850 ; Judge
Bowdon, from 1837 until 1843, and again from
1850 to 1851, at which time the associate judges
were abolished by the adoption of the present
constitution of Indiana.
Abraham C. Smith served as associate judge
from 1843 to 1850, when he was succeeded by
John Current, who held the position until the
office was abolished.
Jehu T. Elliott was the first prosecuting attor-
ney for the Eleventh Judicial Circuit. He served,
in that capacity, in Jay County, but one year, and
136 COLOlSrEL SHANKS.
was succeeded by Jeremiah Smith, who served
two years. John M. "Wallace next filled that
office for one term of two years. Mr. Wallace
then resided in Madison County, but afterward
removed to Grant County, where he still resides.
He has been Judge of the Judicial Circuit in
which he lives, and, since the rebellion broke out,
he was for a time Adjutant General for the State
of Indiana, and, more recently, was an assistant
paymaster in the army of the United States.
John Davis, of Madison Count}^, succeeded
Judge Wallace as Circuit presiding attorney.
The oflfice was next filled by Joseph S. Buckles,
of Delaware Count}^, who served until 1848.
Mr. Buckles has since been a member of the
State Senate, and is now Judge of the Eleventh
Judicial Circuit. He is still a resident of Dela-
In 1849, the law having been changed so as to
provide for the election of a prosecuting attorney
for each county, John P. C. Shanks was first ap-
pointed and afterward elected by the people to
fill that office, and served two years.
Mr. Shanks was born near Harper's Ferry,
Virginia, came to Jay County with his father, in
1840, studied law with Judge N. B. Hawkins, and
was admitted to the bar in 1849. He represented
Jay County in the Indiana Legislature, in 1855,
wa*s elected to Congress in 1860, and served on
COURTS AND OFFICEKS. 13Y
General Fremont's staff in his memorable Missouri
Campaign. By his exertions the Tth Indiana
cavah'j regiment was raised, of which he was ap-
pointed Colonel, and is now serving in that capac-
ity. He gave his earnest support to all the great
measures adopted by the Thirty-Sixth Congress of
which he was a member. In 1862 he was re-nom-
inated, by acclamation, by his party, for re-elec-
tion, but was defeated.
In 1851, the law authorizing the election of a
prosecuting attorney for each county, having been
repealed, David Moss, of Hamilton County, was
elected prosecuting attorney for the Eleventh
Circuit. ■ He was succeeded by William Garver,
of the same county.
Silas Colgrove, then and now a resident of Ran-
dolph County, held the office of prosecuting attor-
ney from 1853 to 1856. He has several times
represented that county in the Indiana Legisla-
ture. He is now Colonel of the 27tli regiment of
Indiana volunteers, in which capacity he has seen
much service, and has been twice severely wound-
ed. Colonel Colgrove was succeeded in the office
of prosecuting attorney by Thomas M. Browne,
of Randolph County, who filled that office six
years. Mr. Browne has been a member of the
State Senate, was on General Wood's staff at the
battle of Shiloh, is now Lieutenant Colonel of the
7th Indiana cavalry and was lately wounded.
138 THE FIRST CmCUIT CLERK.
James N. Templer, of Jay County, was elected
to the office of prosecuting attorney in 1861, and
still holds that office. Mr. Templer came to Jay
County, with his father, when a boy, was educated
at Farmers' Academy and Liber College, studied
Law with Judge Haynes, and was admitted to the
bar in 1857.
Christopher Hanna was the first clerk of the
Jay Circuit Court. He served until the year 1843
when he was succeeded by B. W. Hawkins, who
held the office until 1850. Ira Denney was his
successor, and filled the office until 1859, when
B. W. Hawkins was again elected, and still holds
Henderson Graves was the first Sheriff of Jay
County by election. He served until the fall of
1849, when he was succeeded by B. W. Hawkins.
Mr. Hawkins served four years, and was succeed-
ed by Robert Huey, who filled the office until the
fall of 1844, when Jason Whipple was elected.
Two years later, Hugh P. Hanna succeeded
Mr. Whipple, and, after serving four years, Alex-
ander Johnson became his successor. Mr. John-
son filled the office until 1854, when Jacob E.
Lotz was elected. In 1856 Alexander Johnson
was again elected Sheriff, and, after serving two
years, he was in turn succeeded by Mr. J. E. Lotz,
who held the office until 1862, when Alexander
Hanlin, the present incumbent, was elected.
NATHAN B. HAWKINS. 139
The first term of the Probate Court of Jay
County was held at the Court-house in Portland,
on the 14tli day of May, 1838, before Enoch Bow-
don and Obadiah Winters, assistant judges of the
The first letters of administration were granted
to Ellis Davis on the estate of Aaron Eigby, de-
ceased, the 20th day of September, 1837. The
associate judges also held a term of the Probate
Court in November, 1838.
In August, 1839, George C. Whiteraan was
^ elected Probate Judge for Jay County, and con-
» tinned in that office until the court was abolished,
The first term of the Court of Common Pleas for
Jay County, was held by Nathan B. Hawkins, on
the iTth day of January, 1853. The common
pleas district then consisted of the counties of
Randolph and Jay.* Judge Hawkins was elected
judge of this district in October, 1852, and died,
in ofiice, in October, 1853.
There were but few men who occupied a more
prominent position in Jay County, during the
period of his manhood that he spent in the county,
tlian Nathan B. Hawkins. He came to the coun-
ty with his father in 1829, and remained here until
he was about sixteen years of age, when he went
to Wayne County, Indiana. He there went into
mercantile business, first as a clerk, and after-
140 NATHAN B. HAWKINS.
ward on his own acconnt, remaining in that
county nntil 1839, when lie returned to Jay
and engaged in selling goods at Portland. Ilav-
ing a taste for study, he employed his leisure
hours in reading Blackstone. At the May term
of the Jay Circuit Court, 1841, he was admitted
to the bar, and immediately commenced the prac-
tice of law. In 1842 he represented the counties
of Jay and Adams in the Legislature of Indiana,
and was a member of tbe convention for the revi-
sion of the Constitution of Indiana, in 1850, — rep-
resenting the counties of Eandolph, 'Jay and
Blaclcfoid. Judge Hawkins M-as a man of decid-
ed ability, an excellent business man, a fluent,
forcible speaker, and a successful lawyer. He
was a good citizen, of generous impulses, public
spirited and liberal. His early death was regret-
ted by all who knew him.
He died at his residence, in Portland, on the
20th of October, 1852, aged 41 years.
James Brown, of Randolph County, where he
still resides, was appointed by the Governor to fill
the oflfice of Common Pleas Judge, until the suc-
ceeding general election. He lias represented
that county in the Indiana Legislature.
^ In 1854 William A. Peelle was elected Judge
of the Common Pleas Court, and held the oflice
two years. At tbe time of his election he was a
citizen of Eandolph County. At the expiration of
J. M. HAYNES. 141
his term he resumed the practice of law. In 1860
he was elected Secretary of State^ which office he
held two years. He is now engaged in the law
practice at Centreville, Indiana; In 1856 Jacob
M. Ilaynes, of Jay Coiinty, was elected Judge of
the Court of Common Pleas. In 1860 the district
was enlarged so as to consist of the counties of
Randolph, Delaware, Jay and Blackford, and
Judge Ilaynes was the same year elected to pre-
side over the courts of tlie enlarged district, which
position he still holds.
Judge Playnes came to Portland to commence
his career as a lawyer, where he still remains.
He has always identified himself with the best in-
terests of Jay County. His integrity of charac-
ter, honesty of purpose and thorough knowledge
of his profession, have given him the confidence
of the people in an eminent degree, and made him
a successful, honest lawyer. He prepared for
college at Monson Academy, Massachusetts, and
took a literary course at Phillips' Academy, An-
dover, Massachusetts. He commenced the study
of law with Hon. Linus Child, at Southbridge, in
the same State. In September, 1843, he came
West, resumed the study of law with Hon. Walter
March, of Muncie, Indiana, where he taught the
Delaware County Seminary, and was admitted
to the bar in March, 181:4:. At the age of twenty-
seven, in December, 184:1:, he came to Portland,
where, in 1846, he married Miss Hilinda T.
Haines. He was appointed School Commissioner
in 1846, to fill a vacancy, which occun-ed by the
resignation of "Wilson Milligan. In August of
the same year he was elected to that office, and
served for two years; he was appointed School
Examiner in 1848, which office he filled for four
The first prosecuting attorney of the common
pleas court of Jay County was William Moorman,
who was succeeded by John J. Cheney, and he
by Enos L. "Watson, all of Randolph County.
Thomas J. Hosford, of Delaware County, held the
office from 1860 to 1862, when Enos L. Watson
was again elected, and still holds the office.
The lawyers who have been residents of Jay
County are Moses Jenkinson, Morrison E-ulon,
IS'athan B. Hawkins, Jacob M. Haynes, John P.
C. Sliauks, James B. Jaqua, John E.. Perdieu,
John W. Headington, James N. Templer, "Wil-
liam D. Frazee, John J. Hawkins, David V. Ba-
ker and Allen Jaqua.
Moses Jenkinson now resides at Fort "Wayne,
Indiana ; is a lawyer of considerable note, and has
represented Allen County in the State Legisla-
ture. He removed from Jay County in 1845.
Morrison Rulon was twice elected to the legisla-
ture from Jay County ; is now a resident of Union
OOTJNTY C0MMISSI0NEE8. 143
"W". D. Frazee remained in Jay^ County but a
short time ; is now engaged in the law practice at
J. W. Headington resides at Portland, and is
now Major of the 100th regiment Indiana Volun-
Messrs. Jaqua, Perdieu, Templer, Hawkins,
Baker and A. Jaqua are still residents of Port-
Among the attorneys not residents of Jay
County, who have practiced in its courts, are
Jeremiah Smith, Moorman Way, Zachariah Puck-
et, Beattie McClelland, Silas Colgrove, William
A. Peelle, James Brown and Thomas M, Browne,
of Randolph County ; Joseph Anthony, Thomas
Anthony, Andrew Kennady, Thomas J. Sample
and Walter March, of Delaware County.
John Brownlee, of Grant County, also attended
the courts of Jay County. He acted as prosecut-
ing attorney at the October term, 1839.
The following shows the names of those who
have been members of the Board of County Com-
missioners, when they assumed the office, and ex-
piration of their terms :
John Pingry 1836-'37 Abraham Lotz 1836-'38
John Pingry 1838-'40 Benj. Goldsmith. . . .1836-'39
Henderson Graves. .1837-39 Jacob Bosworth 1838-39
Timothy Stratton. . .1839-'45 Josiah H. Topping. .1839-'41
George White 1840-'43 Ammon Cook 1841-'44
Samuel Hall l843-'46 Jacob Bosworth 1843-'46
John Reed 1844-'46 Joseph Roach 1845-'46
William Gemmell . . . 184G-'49 Sumner Griffin 1846-'50
John GofF 1849-'o2 David Money 1849-'52
Wm. H. Wade 18o0-'o6 Isaac Myres 1852-'54
William Gemmell. . . 18o2-'58 Alexander Jackson. . 1854-'58
Vynul Arnett 1858-'64 Wm. B. Miller 1858-61
M. A. Smith 1856-'62 Alexander Jackson. .1801-' G4
Eli Bales 1862-'—
Jay County was first represented in tlie State
Legislature by Lewis W. Purviance, of Hunting-
ton County, in 1839. The district was then com-
posed of Jay, Adams, Wells, Whitley and Hun-
tington counties. In 1840 it was represented b}''
Morrison Rulon. In 1841 the district embraced
only Adams and Jay counties, and Elder Robert
Tisdale, of Adams, was the representative. He
was succeeded by Nathan B. Hawkins in 1842,
and he by Samuel S. Mickle, of Adams, who has
since been in the State Senate. The representa-
tives succeeding were as follows : 1844, Robert
Huey, of Jay County ; 1845, S. S. Mickle, of
Adams. In 1846 the district was composed of
Jay and Blackford counties, and "William F. Jones,
of the latter county, was the representative ;
1847, Morrison Rulon ; 1848, George S. Howell,
of Blackford ; 1849, Robert Huey ; 1850, William
T. Shull, of Blackford; 1851, Joseph W. Holli-
day, of Blackford. Mr. Ilolliday was a lawyer of
Blackford County ; was elected representative to
the legislature for Jaj and Blackford counties in
the year 1847. Before the meeting of the legisla-
ture he resigned and went to the Mexican war as
lieutenant of a company of volunteers. He died
in 1851, about the close of the session of the
In 1852 Jay County became entitled to a repre-
sentative independent of other counties, and Rob-
ert Iliiey was elected ; in 1851:, J, P. C. Shanks ;
in 1856, Joseph J. McKinney ; in 1858, George
C. Whiteman ; in 1800, Isaac Underwood, and in
1862, Samuel A. Shoaff.
The following persons have been State Senators
from districts of which Jay County has been a
part : In 1839, John Foster ; in 1840, Michael
Aker, of Randolph ; in 1843, Isaac F. Wood ; in
1846, Dixon Milligan, of Jay ; in 1849, Jacob
Brugh, of Blackford; in 1851, Thomas D. M.
Longshore, of Randolph ; in 1853, Theophilus
Wilson, of Jay ; in 1857, Daniel Hill, of Ran-
dolph; in 1861, David Studabaker, of Adams,
and in 1863, George S. Brown, of Wells.
Henry H. Cuppy was the first County Treasurer
and Hawkins C. Fonts the next. His successor
was William T. Shull, who was succeeded in 1841
by Jonas Yotaw, who held the ofiice^ until 1853,
at which time Alexander White took it, but died
in 1855, before the expiration of his term. G. W.
Templer filled the vacancy thus occurring, and in
146 COUNTY OFFICERS.
1856 was elected and served two years. Joseph
P. Winters served from 1858 until 1862, when
Royal Denney was elected, and resigned in July,
1864, when Thomas Black was appointed to till
Prior to 1850 the County Auditors were Alex-
ander White and Joseph Wilson. At this time
John Coulson took the office and served until
1859, when William G. Sutton was elected, and
is the present incumbent.
Geo. W. Templer was the first County Record-
er (1843), and was succeeded in 1850 by Thomas
Black, who served until 1859. Harvey Humphries
was then elected, and served until 1863, when
Cyrus Stanle}'' was elected, and now holds the
D. W. MclSTeal was the first Surveyor, was suc-
ceeded by Thomas Brown, in 1842, and he^ by
William H. Montgomery, in 1845, who served
until 1852, when John C. Bailey was elected ;
in 1856, Nimrod Headington ; in 1858, Thomas
Brown, who served two years, and in 1862, B. R.
McCoy, the present incumbent.
Much of the early history of the townships can
never be obtained. The official reports of the
first elections are not in existence. The records
of the County Commissioners appointing the elec-
tions, and the recollections of the early inhabit-
ants, are the only sources from which any infor-
mation can now be drawn. From the former we
can only learn the time at which these elections
were held. The facts ascertained from the first
settlers concerning them are vague, uncertain and
often contradictory. An instance will illustrate :
In one township the confident testimony of the
earliest residents would show that the first elec-
tion was held at three different places and at as
many different times. Similarly conflicting state-
ments are given in most of the townships. The
148 PENN TOWNSHIP.
mem'>rj of the pioneers is confused by the fact
that at most of the precincts several special elec-
tions were held during the tirst year or two after
tlie township organization. This leads many to
give the first election they attended as the first
township election. The same uncertainty exists,
also, with reference to the officers of the election
and the persons elected. In these circumstances,
that only is stated here which is known to be true-
The first township organized, was Penn, by
oi'der of the County Commissioners at their iirst
sitting. It was named by Samuel Grissell, in
honor of William Penn. The iirst house was
built by John Gain, in 1823 ; the first settler was
John Brooks ; the next was Moses Hamilton, who
remained long enough to acquire the honorable
distinction of first permanent settler. Samuel
Grissell came next, and was soon followed by
John McCoy, both in 1831.
The town of Camden was laid out August 27th,
1836, by Jeremiah Smith, Samuel Grissell being
the proprietor. It was first called New Lisbon .
Mr. Grissell made a sale of town lots. Job Carr
being the auctioneer, and sold at prices varying
from $15 to $30. John D. Jones built the first
house in the summer of 1836, (William Samuels
had partially raised a house before this,) and be-
came the first settler. It took the few hands that
could be collected three days to raise it. The
town site was then partly cleared of underbrush,
but Mr. Jones has the honor of having taken out
the first " grub." The elections for several years
were generally held at his house. William
Samuels was the second person to settle in the
In 1836 H. Z. Jenkins brought his family from
Ohio, and a stock of goods, consigned to him to
sell on commission, with which he opened the
first store in the town — first occupying Job Carr's
house, just west of the town, and afterward one of
his own, in the village. Mrs. Jenkins generally
waited on the customers. Job Carr, junior, kept
the second store ; and in April, 1839, Anthony
Pifcnam, now of Richmond, Indiana, opened the
third. The Friends built the first meeting house
in the township, situated east of the town. This
log house, though still standing, is now superceded
by a neat frame structure. At the first meeting
held in Camden, by the Methodists, H. Z. Jenkins
joined the church. James Coulson and his wife
H. Z. Jenkins, Mary Belong and Sarah Gove
formed the first class. Mr. Joseph A. Lupton
was the first blacksmith, opening a shop in the
winter of 1839-'40. Stephen Kees and Joseph J.
Paxsgu were among the earliest pioneers of the
north part of the township. The prudent fore-
thought of Joshua Bond led him to bring a pair
of hand mill stones when he moved from Ohio.
150 THE FIRST MILL.
These be made into a Land grist mill, in tlie
spring of 1836, which was the first mill in Jay
Cuunty. There was mnch rejoicing in tlie vicin-
ity when this successor to the hominy block was
put in operation. It was constantly thronged,
each man grinding bis own grist, no toll being
charged. But it would by no means supply the
demand, and Mr. Bond soon fixed it to run by
horse-power. This contrivance also failed to sup-
ply the wants of the region, and in 1837 Mr. Bond
built a good mill, which was run by four to eiglit
horses. That was the most celebrated mill ever
erected in Jay County. To it the settlers flocked
from far and near, some coming twenty miles. No
public improvement was ever more welcome to
the needy settlers. Sometimes so many w^ould
be at the mill over night that there was not room
on the floor of Mr. Bond's house for all of them
to lie down. This mill was in the basement of
the loo; barn, in which he afterward built a thresh-
inof machine. That was the first threshing:
machine in the county. The customers then
brought their grain to the mill in sheaves and
took it away in flour ! What modern mill can
excel this pioneer establishment?
About 1838 Samuel Grissell started a saw mill
on the Salimonie by Camden, and in IS-H put in
operation a water grist mill. In 1850 Mr. Gris-
sell and Lukins Griflith built a steam saw mill,
FIRST ELECTION. 151
and the same year built the steam grist mill now
owned bj SamiKil A. Shoaff.
The iirst election in Penn Township is involved
in much obscurity. The County Commissioners'
record shows that the first election appointed was
to be held at New Lisbon (Camden) on the second
Saturday in December, 1836, Samuel Grissell, In-
spector. At the January terjn, 1837, another
election was ordered, to be held at Jonathan
Iliatt's, John M. Carr, Inspector, on the last Sat-
urday of that month. And again, at the May
term, 1837, still another election was appointed
for the first Saturday in June — place not given.
All these elections were to elect a Justice. Elihu
Hamilton says he was elected the first Justice at
the election held at Jonathan Hiatt's ; that he
would not accept the office, and that at a subse-
quent election, Ellis Davis was elected. The first
township officers were appointed by the Commis-
sioners in May, 1837, and were as follows : In-
spector, Elihu Hamilton ; Supervisor, Jonathan
Hiatt; Overseers of the Poor, Joshua Bond and
William Swallow ; Fence ^ iewers, Moses Ham-
ilton and David Canady.
Levi Johnson, Esq., for twelve years Justice
of the Peace in Jackson Township, taught the
first school in Penn Township in the winter of
1837-'38, in a log house which stood near the
^present residence of Jesse Gray, jun.
152 BEAR CREEK TO"^'NSniP.
The Post Office was established in Camden on
the 19th of January, 1839, and John D. Jones
appointed Postmaster. He held the office just six
days, durincr which time he opened one mail and
found one letter for that office. John M. Carr
succeeded Mr. Jones as Postmaster. It was first
called Penn, then changed to Pennville,
Bear Creek Towistship was organized in No-
vember, 1836, the first election held on the second
Saturday in December, 1836, at the house of John
Pingry, Biram A. Peareon being Inspector. The
first township officers were as follows : .Inspector,
James Marquis ; Supervisors, William Vail and
James Marquis ; Overseers of the Poor, William
Baldwin and Edward Buford ; Fence Yi ewers,
Frederick Wible and William Gray.
The first settler was John Pingry, sen. The
first store was kept by Lewis N. Byram, at Bloom-
field. The first Post Office (Bear Creek) in the
township was also at Bloomfield, established on
the Yth of February, 1840, L. N. Byram, Post-
master, On the 14th of July, 1851, the office
was removed to West Liberty, in Jackson Town-
ship, and W. P. Coldren appointed Postmaster ;
but in July the following year it was returned to
Bloomfield, and J. L. Grigsby became Postmaster,
John H. Smith holds the office at present, and is
the only merchant in the place. In 1854 George
W, Porter started the first store at West Chester,
BEAR CKEEK TOWNSHIP. 153
and in April of that year the Post Office was estab-
lished there, and he was appointed the Postmas-
ter. Soon after, A. K. McGriff and I. N. Green
purchased the store, and they sold it to William H.
Montgomery,- who still remains there and is the
present Postmaster. Monroe Post Office was
established on the 24th of November, 1854, and
John A. Smith appointed Postmaster, who held
the office until July, 1864; when it was discontin-
ued on account of a change in the mail route. It
was on the Wabash river, near the farm of Wil-
liam Siberry, sen.
The lirst marriage in the township was that of
Addison D. May and Miss Lucinda Pingry, Nov,
6, 1834, by William Odle, Esq., of Deerlield. In
the fall of 1835, Tandy Dempsey came to John
Pingry's, and on the 8th of August, 1836, he died,
being the first death in the township. In 1836 a
large hickory tree caught fire near Mr. Pingry's.
The fire ran up the tree about forty feet, there
burned it ofi", and then slowly and constantly
burned downward for nearly one year. It was
known as the '" burning tree."
James Marquis and family settled on the farm
now owned by Kev. Aaron Worth, April 14th,
1836, purchasing the claim of Michael Zimmer-
man, who lived in a split log house. The chick-
ens roosted on the joists at one corner of the
house, while at one end on the outside was a shed.
154 FIKST TEMPERANCE SOCIETY.
under which the horses were kept, and, at the
other, against the chimnev, there was a pig
pen. In May, of this year, a Methodist Episcopal
class was formed at Mr. Marquis' house, being the
first religious organization in Jay County. The
members were: James Marquis, William Yail,
Jesse Gray, senior, David and William Baldwin,
and their wives.
]n June, 1837, Mr. Marquis commenced build-
ing a water grist mill on that place, and, in Janu-
ary, 1838, put it in operation — the second mill of
the kind in the county. Like all other pioneer
mflls it was a great blessing to a large section of
country. Many persons were waiting at the mill
to get some grinding done when it started. Per-
sons came to that mill from Adams, Wells and
Blackford counties. Most persons came <m horse-
back, some on ponies, and some brought their
grists on their shoulders.
In March, 1839, he started a saw-mill, the first
one in Jay County.
The first temperance meeting ever held in the
county was also held at Mr. Marquis' house, in
1837. In 1839 the first temperance society was
organized in the same neighborhood, and Dr.
Jacob Bosworth delivered an address full of sound
sense and convincing arguments. The follow-
ing scraps are specimens of its bold, manly utter-
FIRST TEMPERATSTCE SOCIETY. 155
" Intemperance is incompatible witli genuine patriotism.
Tliis virtue is not to be conceded to the drunkard. Tliis no-
ble and generous plant cannot live in a soul so uncultivated
so overrun with foul and noxious weeds. Can a man be a
patriot who violates every obligation of domestic and social
life ? whose example is a moral pestilence in the community,
and who, for the sake of a beastly gratification, inflicts misery
and wrong upon all who have the unhappiness to be connect-
ed with him. The good man loves his country because it
contains much that is excellent and much that is dear to him.
He knows it to be the home of the wise and good, of his kin-
drefl and friends, whom he venerates; he reveres the liberal
and holy institutions it contains ; in their prosperity and per-
petuity he takes the deepest interest, and his most
s trenuous eiforts are ever ready to remove what is evil and
to advance that which is excellent and useful. Nothing of
this kind can be attribiited to the drunkard. His conduct
and example, instead of advancing the welfiire of his country,
are eminently calculated to destroy its best interests. Do
patriots discourage habits of industry and encourage habits
of idleness, pauperism and crime ? Intemperance destroys
the intelligence and virtue of the people — those pillars of our
republican system ! it endangers our civil and religious insti-
tutions, with all that is held dear by the true patriot."
Signed to the pledge of that society are nearly
one hundred names, embracing persons living in
all parts of the county.
The first settler on the Limberlost, between
William Gibson and William Chapman, was Ira
Towle, who came in the spring of 1837. In three
weeks Samuel Towle settled beside him. Within
the next year or two a whole settlement of East-
ern people joined them. John C. Montgomery,
156 A WHIRLWIND.
Ilarrj Reed, Reuben Montgomery, David Antles,
George Axe, M. P. Montgomery, and Aaron and
Thomas Brown. Ira Towle burned the top of a
hirge stump in concave shape, which answered for
a hominy block, and above it built a frame, in
which was a contrivance to pound the corn in the
stump. In this way the neighbors made their
meal. Samuel Towle kept many travelers the
iirst year. Twenty-five strangers staid in his
fourteen by-twenty -feet cabin one niglit. They
lay upon the floor, commencing under the bed,
the last one lying by the door, who had to get up
in the morning before it could be opened ! For
three years John C. Montgomery's house, which
stood just north of Westchester, was most of the
time full of v/estward travelers on the tiantington
road. Sometimes they went in caravans; at one
time forty, at another seventy persons were in one
company. Once, when Mr. Montg. mery was
sick, he put his gun out of the window and shot
a wild turkey, which with a fiock had come into
the door-yard. The wolves killed several calves
for Samuel Towle, and once caught a deer and
tore it in pieces within fifteen rods of his door.
A whirlwind more terrific than any storm that
has since visited Jay County occurred on the 2Sth
of March, 1840. It commenced half a mile west
of Adam Stolz', near Westchester, taking nearly
an eastern direction. A very small cloud first
A WHIRLWIND. 157
appeared, which soon began to whirl, and in a few
moments the sky presented a vast mass of confused
whirling clouds. It would strike the earth, and
follow the ground for perhaps half a mile, then
rise above the trees, and soon again descend and
renew its devastations. Its disastrous track was
not more than forty rods wide. It took half the
roof from Mr. Stolz' house, and tore down all the
trees in his fields. It appeared to be in the height
of its fury when it reached the old farm of "Wil-
liam H, Montgomery. Darkness came as sud-
denly as the tornado ; — the terrible roaring and
crashing swallowed up all other sounds.' The
windows were blown in, and while the family
endeavored to hold blankets against them, one
side of the floor rose up several inches, the roof
was taken off and carried several rods, and a limb
fell into the chamber which took two men to lift.
A straw bonnet belonging to Miss Jane A. Mont-
gomery was torn to pieces, wrapped around a
large tree, and the tree lying upon the ground. A
dress belonging to Mrs. Harriet Walter was taken
four and a half miles, and left in a tree top. All
the fences were scattered ; trees were torn down,
and nothing fairly in its course withstood its fury.
Trees three and four feet in diameter were twisted
into splinters or snapped ofJ, as if by the power
of Him who holds the winds in the hollow
of His hand. When it reached the farm of Eben-
158 WABASH TOWNSHIP.
ezer Drake, Mrs. Drake was at home, alone with
the children. With commendable forethought
she took up a puncheon, put the children into a
hole under the floor, and was just going down
herself when a piece of flying timber struck her,
inflicting severe injury. In a few moments the
storm had passed, and she found only a few rounds
of logs left of their house. Its noise was heard,
distinctly a distance of nine miles. A similar
whirlwind passed through Madison Township
before any families hatl settled in Jay.
The first settler in Wabash Township was Peter
Studabaker (1821) ; the second was Orman Per-
ring, and the third was William Gibson. The
first election was held at William Gibson's, on flie
23d of September, 1837. John B. Gillespie set-
tled on what is now the town site of New Corj'--
don in 1837, and in 1839 built the old grist mill,
having only a brush dam. In 1811 Samuel Ilall
built a saw mill on the south side of the river.
James Gillespie erected a saw mill adjoining the
gristmill, in 1812. In August, 1843, Theophilus
Wilson purchased the town site and the Gillespie
Mills, brought a stock of goods, and opened the
first store. Gillespie had laid ofi" a few town lots
in 1840, but none had been sold. In March, 1844,
Mr. Wilson employed, Thomas Brown to survey
the town of New Corydon. Jesse Snyder put up
the first blacksmith's shop in 1844. Theophilus
WABASH TOWNSHIP. 159
"Wilson put a tan yard in operation in 1845, which
he afterward sold to Timothy H. Parker, who dis-
posed of it to David Walter, the present owner.
In 1845 Almon Sparling opened a cooper's shop.
Wilson's store was the only one in the town until
1847, when Joshua Gift'ord commenced selling
goods, and continued until his death, in Septem-
ber, 1853, Wilson sold his store to Sherburne A.
Lewis in 1848, who subsequently took C. J.
Plumb as a partner, and the store was kept in
Plumb's house, at the lower end of Main street,
which ha? since been a hotel. Samuel Hall and
Harper Tyson sold goods a few months in Wil-
son's old stand, were succeeded by C. W. Scott,
he by J. B. Cecil, and he by David Beardslee,
whom George Steckel bought out, continuing the
business, though at present in the hundred-days'
service of his country.
The first school kept in the township was by
Miss Elizabeth Montgomery, now Mrs. Thomas
Towle, in the summer of 1840. The first school
in New Corydon was taught in the summer of
1844, by Miss Sophronia Lewis, — a hewed log
" smoke house" being converted into a school-
room. A Post Office was established at New
Corydon in September, 1844, and T. Wilson ap-
pointed Postmaster, who held the office until Jan-
uary 1st, 1852, when he resigned in favor of C.
W. Scott, who resigned in a year, and George
160 WABASH TOWNSHIP.
Stolz was appointed. He is the present incum-
bent, and also has a store.
In 1844 tlie Rev. I. N. Taylor was stopping at
Mr. Wilson's, who had just been repairing his old
log house by ceiling up the rafters. Mr. Taylor
proposed that a Presbyterian Church should be
built there, and when Mr. "Wilson made some
objection he read to him these words from Hosea :
"Is it time for you to dwell in your ceiled house,
and this house lie waste? Go up to the moun-
tains, and bring wood and build the house, and I
will dwell in it, and I will be glorified, saith the
Lord." Mr. "Wilson replied, "You have got the
Bible on your side ; we will build the house !" and
immediately gave Mr. Taylor the choice of his
lots, and started a snbscription paper by putting
his name down for fifty dollars. The paper was
circulated, and persons signed work, lumber, haul-
ing, grain, etc., no money being promised. Rev.
I. ISI. Taylor and the Limberlost settlement aided
very much. Mr. Reuben Montgomery took the
subscription and built the house for $250, without
money. This pioneer church has been occupied
b}^ all denominations with good feeling. In 1855 '
a Methodist Church was built.
The first Sabbath School in 'New Corydon was
established on the 26th of June, 1842. The pre-
liminary steps of organization were taken at the
house of Asahel W. Lewis, in February previous.
KOBEET TISDALE. 161
The old mills have now good successors. About
1858 John Hall and Vynul Arnett started a steam
saw mill on the south bank of the river at the
bridi^e, and in August, 1859, set in operation a
steam grist mill. In 1862 William and Henry
McMakin erected a large water grist mill at the
old mill site. All these mills are now in success-
ful operation. In 1859 Henry Reed opened a
drug store in l!*[ew Corydon, which he still owns.
The earliest minister in Wabash Township was
Elder Robert Tisdale, a Baptist. He continued
to travel and preach until his death, at a good old
age, at Montpelier, in the autumn of 1856. In
early times he carried a hatchet with him, in the
winter, with which, fastened to a pole by withes or
linden bark, he would sit on his horse and cut the
ice before him, sometimes making but three or
four miles a day, camping out at night or climb-
ing a tree to avoid the wolves. He traveled ex-
tensively over Indiana and sections of Ohio ; was
a strong advocate of temperance and Sabbath
Schools ; noted for long s ermons, and in late years
for his liberal Christian sentiments.
Rev. F. Baldwin, Rev. J. W. Allen, Rev. Mr.
Drury and Elder Chaffee were, at different pe-
riods, the preachers for the Baptist church at New
Corydon, until 1854, when Rev. J. C. Skinner
became its pastor, and still holds that relation.
In 1817, Rev. J. H. Babcock preached for the
162 THEOPHILUS WILSON.
Congregational church of New Corydon, but died
the following year.
He was succeeded by Rev. Andrew Loose, who
remained some over one year, when Rev. James
Boggs became the pastor of that church and the
Presbyterian church on the Limberlost, and con-
tinued until 1S54, when he moved to Clinton, In-
diana, and afterward to Fairton, New Jersey,
where he still resides. Rev. Joseph H. Jones
then became pastor of the two churches, and still
retains that position. He settled first in Adams
County, bnt, in 1863, moved to "Westchester, where
he now resides.
The many Methodist circuit preachers in New
Corydon and other circuits in the county, deserve
honorable mention for their self-denying labors in
the dissemination of christian principles, but their
large number prevents us from obtaining a com-
Among the most valuable of the Jay County
pioneers was Theophilus Wilson. He settled in
Liberty Township, Mercer County, Ohio, in 1811,
where he bartered goods for the furs, skins, deer
hams and everything the surrounding forest pro-
duced. He settled on the Wabash in 1813, from
which time his identity with the physical, moral
and political interests of Jay was conspicuous. He
was the proprietor of New Corydon, its first mer-
chant, post-master, and leading spirit in all reli-
NOBLE TOWNSHIP. 163
gioiis, temperance, educational and other en-
terprises, while he remained. He was loved
and respected by all who knew him, always relied
on as a citizen who was constantly looking to the
best interests of the community. He represented
this county and Randolph in the State Senate
one term. His ceaseless activity, superior intelli-
gence and large generosity made his loss deeply
felt by the people, especially those at New Cory-
den, who knew him best.'when he moved to Avon-
dale, near Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1855, where he
now resides, as deeply interested in Jay as though
he were yet a citizen.
Noble Township was organized in September,
1837. It was named in honor of Noah Noble,
Governor of Indiana from 1831 to 1837.
The Urst settlers were James Stone and Hen-
derson Graves. The first election was held at
James Graves', who was elected the first Justice
of the Peace. Here the name Limberlost finds its
source. This singular name was given this
stream from the/ollowing circumstance: A man
named James Miller, while hunting along its
banks, became lost. After various fruitless efforts
to find his way home, in M-hich he would always
come around to the place of starting, he determined
he would go on a straight course, and so, every
few rods would blaze a tree. While doing this he
was found by his friends who were hunting him.
164 DAVID MONEY,
Beins^ an agile man, he was known as " limber
Jim," and, after this, the stream was called " Lim-
berlost." A cnrious phenomenon can be seen in
its waters. Bubbles are constantly rising, which,
on reaching the surface, burst and leave an oily
substance upon the water. Perhaps they are
ebullitions from a coal oil fountain. Among the
many hunters who have lived in this township,
perhaps David Money is chief. lie first settled
about half a mile from the Jay County line, in
Ohio, October, 1830, moving into IN'oble Town-
ship in May, 1839, his brother Alexander hav-
ing preceded him several years. Hunting has
been his chief business during life, and in this
respect he has acquired considerable celebrity and
much skill. The lirst winter after settling in this
county, he hunted steadily for three weeks, killing
from three to nine deer each day, except two days,
on each of which he killed two. During that fall
and wnnter he killed one hnndred and twenty
deer! He received, at one time, one hundred dol-
lars in Fort Wayne, for furs anc^ skins. At one
time he was hunting with a companion who lost
his gun-lock. Mr. Money sent him back to hunt
the lock, and take care of the deer they had
already shot, telling him that he (Money) would
meet him at a certain place the next day, at noon.
At the appointed time they met, and, since their
separation, the old hunter had killed eleven deer
EBENEZER WOODBKIDGE. 165
and one fox ! The next winter he hunted three
weeks, and killed sixty-seven deer. He took to
market at one time thirty-two deer, all having
their skins on. There were two sleigh loads of
them. The first sleigh had a fine old buck
with high horns and many " points," standing
erect at the front, presenting a most novel and
amusing spectacle. Daring his life he has killed
eighteen deer at nine shots, two at each time.
Onl}'- a few years ago he shot thirty-two consecu-
tive times at deer, foxes, pheasants and other
game, without missing. His chief hunting
ground, in later years, has been Paulding County,
Ohio, whither he goes once or twice a year, camps
in the woods, after the good old hunting style,
and hunts for weeks at a time. In the fall of
1861 he killed eleven deer and one wolf in that
A Post-office was established in Noble Town-
ship, May 28th, 1851, called Hector, and J. C.
Brewington appointed Postmaster. For several
years Wilbur Morehous has held the office.
Near the " ninety mile tree," — a tree on the
state line, between Indiana and Ohio, just ninety
miles from the Ohio river, — Ebenezer Woodbridge
now of Lee County, Illinois, settled 'in 1838,
bringing his family two years after. Their cook-
ing stove was the first in that part of the county,
and created much curiosity among the neighbors.
166 WAYNE TOWNSHIP.
He was an earnest temperance man. When he
wanted to raise his barn, out of many persons in-
vited, but few came the first day, and it was hint-
ed to him that it Avas because he would not
furnish liquor. He indignantly mounted a stump
and made a regular " stump " speech to his neigh-
bors, saying that if his barn could not go up with-
out whiskey, the logs might rot upon the ground.
The next day his barn was raised.
In 1861, Daniel Forner and Charles Joseph
commenced the manufacture of crockery ware at
Mr. Forner's residence, in Noble Township. They
are still engaged in the business.
Wayne Township was organized in September,
1837. Most of the early history of this township
has already been given. The iirst election was
held on the third Saturday in September, 1837,
Daniel Farber, Inspector. The first settler was
Philip Brown, who built the first house (1832).
The next was William Brockus, and the third
James Morrison. Then came Obadiah Winters,
the Highlander family, and H. H. Cuppy. The
latter built the "Conner house" on the south side
of the Big Salimonie, now owned by Colonel
Shanks, in the fall of 1833. That house is cele-
brated as the one in which the first Commission-
ers' and Circuit Courts were held.
In 1836 Cuppy brought some goods from Rich-
mond and opened a store in that house, which
JACOB BOS WORTH. 16Y
was the second one in the county. He also built
the first house in Portland, which was in 1837.
It was a lonw, log structure, and stood on the cor-
ner, since the Jay Inn. He moved his store into
that house. The next house in town was the
court house, built by Robert Huey. The next
year Lewis S. Farber built a house, where D. L.
Grow's tan-yard is now situated ; and James
Simmons built one for D. W. McNeal on the cor-
ner where Miller's building now stands. The
first farm house was built by Dr. D. Milligan, on
the corner south of Miller's buildinp;. The first
regular tavern was kept by William Haines, who
built what is known as " Hickory Hall " for that
purpose — still standing.
In 1839 Kathan B. Hawkins and William T.
Sliull opened the second store in the place. The
town was full of native trees then, and it is re-
lated that hickory-nuts would often fall upon the
log court house while court was in session.
Dr. Jacob Bosworth moved from Massachusetts
to Ohio in 1817. While passing through Darke
County he found Jesse Gray, who urged him to
go to Jay 'to look for land, which he did. He
and his family arrived March 1st, 1836. He was
the first physician in the county, and for many
years his practice was extensive. In the summer
of 1837 he opened a Sabbath School in the Wring-
er cabin at Liber, which had then been used
168 THE OLD LOG BAEN.
for a sngar-making house. It was the second
school of that Jcind in the county. Afterward it
was moved to his house southeast of Liber, where
it was continued for nine years.
John Smith built the next house in Liber in
1836. It was on the farm so long the home of
Deacon Jonathan Lowe, now owned and occupied
by Jonathan R. Wells. Mr. Smith also built the
" old log barn," still standing, and now owned by
Mrs. Mary S. Montgomery, which was the subject
of the following verses by R. S. Taylor, Esq. :
There's a charm for me yet in the old log barn,
So tottering, old and gray ;
Where wildly I loved, long years ago,
To romp on the new-made hay.
For the merry old times that I sported there,
The song that I sung in my play,
Have an image and echo within my breast
That never will fade away.
There was gathered the fruit of the plenteous year,
In garner and spacious mow ;
And the laborers' shout of " Harvest Home,"
Is floating round me now.
For the merry old times, &c.
And here is the olden-time threshing floor,
Where busily moved our feet ;
To handle the hay, or the bearded sheaf,
Or winnow the golden wheat.
For the merry old times, &c.
EEV. J. H. BABCOCK. * 169
But now the old barn is forsaken and lone,
The best of its days it has seen;
Still, when it has fallen and mouldered away,
Its memory will be green.
For the merry old times, &c.
They were set to music also composed by Mr.
Taylor, and after being sung at an exhibition at
Liber College, were published in the Minnehaha
In the tummer of 1845 Rev. Joseph H. Bab-
cock came to Jay County, residing first at Port-
land, where he organized a Presbyterian Church
November 29th, of nine members, consisting of
J. H. Babcock, Eliza Babcock, Jacob Bosworth,
I^ancy Bosworth, Josiah H. Topping, Hector
Topping, Amaretta Topping, Joseph C. Haw-
kins and Amanda Frazee. The meeting was held
in the Court House. In 1847 he moved to J^ew
Cory don, preaching in Portland and in the old
Limberlost Church. He died at I^ew Corydon,
March 15th, 1848, universally lamented. He was
a favorite with all classes, adapting himself with
ease to the society around him : a fluent speaker,
and possessing a complete education as a lawyer
as well as a minister, he was well calculated to
be a leader in all the moral movements of the
time, and especially to lift the Banner of the Cross
in the heterogeneous society of a new country.
170 PIKE TOWNSHIP.
The temperance reform, the Sabbath School and
the common school received his active attention.
He was a model preacher, a good citizen and a
true-hearted Christian man. No death in Jay
County has been so lamented by those who knew
how to value such a man in the forming of new
communities. " Though dead he yet speaketh"
to those who knew him in his self-sacrilicing la-
bors in this county.
AVhen the Commissioners organized Pike
Township, in 183Y, they gave it that name at the
suggestion of J. C. Hawkins. Most of its early
history has been given. The first settler was
John J. Hawkins ; the next Thos. J. Shaylor, and
the third Sarah Riddley.
Jacob Sutton relates that one night, soon after
he settled there, his dog became much alarmed.
He saw in front of the house some animal, and
shot at it while in the house. It proved to be a
wolf, and the shot had broken its back. The ex-
cited dog caught it and would not let go until he
had dragged it into the house, where it was killed.
The oldest settler, now living, in the west part
of the township is Henry Harford. The first
election was held at Jacob Sutton's, and Heniy
"Welch, who lived on the farm now owned by
John J. Adair, was elected Justice. David Gar-
ringer has held that office the longest of any one
in the township. The first school house built was
JEFFEESON TOWNSHIP. 171
on John Kidder's farm, and Miss Lncetta Kidder,
now Mrs. Waldo, taught the first school, com-
mencing July 1st, 1840. The first tavern was
kept by Abraham C. Sutton, on his farm near
Bluff Point. This village was surveyed in 1854
by W. H. Montgomery, for L. J. Bell and I. N.
Taylor. It was first called Iowa. December
17th, 1840, the Post Ofiice was established there,
and David Garringer appointed Postmaster. It
was then called Yan, which name it retained un-
1853, when it was changed to Bluff Point.
Boundary City Post Office was established May
11th, 1852, and Daniel Heaster appointed Post-
master. He still retains that position, and has a
The village of Antioch was surveyed in 1853.
Amos Hall, C. H. Clark and David Frazee were
the proprietors. Mr. Clark named it after Anti-
och College. Peter Couldren kept the first store.
The first sermon ever preached in Jay County
was by Rev. Pobert Burns, a Methodist, at the
Hawkins cabin, in the fall of 1832. His text was,
" Come unto me all ye that labor and are heavy
laden and I will give you rest."
Jeflerson Township was organized at the last
meeting of the Commissioners in 1837. The first
election was held at the house of Jacob H. San-
ders, who was elected the first Justice, and John
Nixon was chosen Constable. Peter Dailey was
172 JACKSON TOWNSHIP.
Inspector of the election. J. H. Sanders laid out
New Mount Pleasant, and named it in honor of a
Quaker meeting-house in Ohio of a similar name.
WilUiam Ilite was the lirst settler in the town,
and kept the lirst tavern. The grand jury found
forty-two indictments against him at one time for
selling liquor, all of which were sustained. It
brought out the true manhood that was in him.
He abandoned the business, and became a sober,
highly respected citizen. John Bell built the
second house in the village, and kept the first
store. The first school in the township was taught
by an Irishman named Thomas Athy, near the
farm of William Finch, sen.
Jackson Township was organized in March,
1838. Prior to this it had been attached to Bear
Creek Township. The first settler was Edward
Buford. The first person who died in the town-
ship was Aaron Rigby, in September, 1837, near
the farm of Isaac Russell. There being no lum-
ber, the cotfin was made of "puncheons,"* by
Joshua Bond. Gillum Post Office was established
January 8th, 1856, and George Fish appointed
the first Postmaster. In 1857 Abel Lester opened
an establishment for the manufacture of crockery
ware. It was in operation only about two years.
* The word " puncheon" is used in this yvovk in the pion-
eer sense, which means a plank which is spUt out of a log,
and hewed instead of being sawed.
JACKSON TOWNSHIP. 173
Silas S. Pingry was Justice in this township for
seventeen years. He married two pairs of twin
sisters out of the same family. The first name
of each of the husbands was John.
During a thaw in the winter of 1837-8, Mr.
James Snow, father of Dr. B. B. Snow, then
about sixty years old, who lived six miles north-
west of Portland, being out of tobacco, of which
he was a passionate lover, started to Camden on
foot to procure some. Soon after leaving home
the weather began to turn colder; but though
thinly clad, he was sufficiently comfortable until
his return, when it began to snow very rapidly,
making him quite wet and hiding the trace he
was following, except the blazes upon the trees.
Soon the snow covered most of these, and he
discovered he had lost the track entirely, which
he tried in vain to regain. Finding that he was
suffering from the cold despite all his exercise, he
endeavored to retrace his steps to Camden. This
he found very tedious work, and soon impossible,
on account of the darkness. He now became se-
riously alarmed for his safety ; wandered about,
and called loudly for aid, but received no answer.
By this time he was discouraged and exhausted.
He had waded across runs and through slashes
until his feet and lower extremities were very
wet ; his clothing w^as freezing upon him, and he
had eaten nothing since early in the morning.
174 EICHLAND TOWNSHIP.
He was forced to choose between an effort to save
his life bj exercising all night or submit to his
fate ! Being drowsy, he was strong!}^ inclined to
the latter course. Finally, he sought a clear, level
place between two large trees, and there contin-
ued walking and running from one to the other
until morning. His family, supposing he was
lost, procured the assistance of some neighbors,
and went in search of him, at daylight. About 9
o'clock in the forenoon they found him crawling
on his back track and badly frozen. He was a
long time recovering.
Richland township was organized in May, 1838.
It was named by Benjamin Manor. The first
election was held at William Richardson's who
lived where Laban Hickman now does, on the
second Saturday in June, the same year, John
Booth, Inspector. James Ewing was the first
Justice. Matthew A. Smith held this office for
fourteen years. Half Way Post-office was estab-
lished September 19, 1853, and Samuel J. Cur-
rent appointed Postmaster. Half Way Creek was
so named from being halfway between Portland
and Muncie, and, from this stream, the Post-office
received its name. The village of Mount Yernon
was laid out by W. H. Wade, and surveyed by
John C. Bailey. Michael Coons, who settled in
the township in 183Y< has killed several bears and
over three hundred deer there.
GEEEN TOWNSHIP. 1Y5
The first settlers in the vicinity of Dunkirk
were Isaiah Sutton and William Shrack, who came
in September, 1837. One day, while the men
were absent, Mrs. Sutton saw a deer, and, though
she had never tired a gun, she took careful aim
and shot, killing the deer instantly.
James S. Wilson was the first Postmaster at
that office, which was established February 28 th,
Green Township was organized in March, 1838.
The first settler was T. J. Shay lor, the next Wil-
liam Coffin. Samuel Kouth, William Bunch,
Greenbury Coffin and Henry Delong were also
early settlers. The Rev. G. C. Whiteman settled
where he still hves, Oct. 22d, 1837. Mr. Routh
and Christopher I. Timberlake were from Green
County, Ohio, and named the township after that
county. The first election was at Delong's, the
first Monday in August, 1839.
Rev. Wade Posey, who was then on the Win-
chester Circuit of the Methodist Church, preached
the first sermon in the township at Mr.Whiteman's.
The first school was taught in the winter of 1845-
-6, in a school house situated near James Whaley's.
The township had no post office until May 22d,
1862. when one was established called Green, and
John Strieker appointed Postmaster.
Knox was the last township organized, which
was in March, 1839. A. C. Smith and Joseph
176 KNOX TOWNSHIP.
Gaunt went to Portland to get the township or-
i^anized. After hunting some time they found the
Commissioners in session out in the woods, near
the court house. The old township name of Sali-
nionie had not been given to any of the new
townships, and Jacob Bosworth, avIio was then one
of the Commissioners, insisted that at least the last
township should ha,ve that name. But Mr. Gaunt
wanted it named after Knox County, Ohio, and
John Brooks was the first settler. Brittan
Beard, Joseph Gaunt, John Gaunt, Adam Zeigler,
Abraham C. Smith and Joshua Bowers were
among the early settlers.
The first election was held at Gaunt's, on the
first Monday in April, 1839, A. C. Smith, Inspec-
tor. There were just seven votes cast, and six
ofticers elected, as follows : Trustees, A. C. Smith,
Michael Roland and Joseph Gaunt ; Justice,
Michael Roland; Clerk, Cornelius Smith; Con-
stable, Adam Zeigler.
The first death in the township was that of Mrs.
Jane Beard, wife of Brittan Beard. She died in
the fall of 1839, and was the first person buried
in the township cemeter3^ Cornelius Smith
taught the first school in the winter of lS38-'89.
The organization of Madison Township has
been given. Henry Abel and Benjamin Gold-
smith were the proprietors of Lancaster. It was
MADISOJS[ TOWNSHIP. 177
surveyed by D. "W. MdSTeal. Salimonie Post
Office was established in 1852, and G. W. Abel
appointed Postmaster. He still retains that posi-
tion. Jordan Post Office was established in 18 — ,
but it was then in Randolph County. For a few
years it has been on the Jay side ot the county
line. The village of New Pittsburg, like Salem,
is on both sides of the line separating the two
In the winter of 1835-6 William Martin open-
ed a store near Abraham Lotz', which was the
first in the county.
One hindering difficulty in the development of
the resources of the county has been the rage for
hunting which most of the early settlers possessed.
Instead of clearing a farm, only a small spot was
generally opened on which to raise a patch of
corn, and the time principally spent in hunting.
It would have been much more profitably era-
ployed in making wider aggressions upon the for-
ests and thus adding new fields to the farm.
During the first stages of the emigrant's life this
hunting was an absolute necessity; but was often,
from lono; habit and love of the excitement of the
hunt, continued after the necessity liad passed
away. The liberal prices paid for skins by the
fur traders also encouraged the hunting, and the
money thus distributed was for many years the
chief dependence of the pioneer families in mak-
178 GENERAL KEMAEKS.
ing purchases of mercliandise and grain, and in
paying taxes and doctor bills. Cotfee, tobacco,
muslin, and, we are sorry to say, in some neigh-
borhoods whisky, were the staple articles of trade
for the first few years. A boy once called at
Theo. Wilson's store, in New Corydon, with one
bushel of corn, half of which he left for tobacco,
and the other half took to the mill, remarking that
it was the last grain they had. As game became
scarce in Jay and adjoining counties, hoop poles
came to be the chief exporting product. Jay
County hoop pole teams have been seen at Eaton
and Camden in Preble County, Ohio, and that,
too, before there was a turnpike on any part of the
EEV. I. N. TAYLOE — LIMBEKLOST CHURCH.
, The first organized religious and educational
eflfort, in Jay County, was made by Rev. Isaac N.
Taylor, He was, emphatically, the leading pion-
eer in all systematic, efiectual labor in these move-
ments. Occupying, as he did, so prominent a
position in the county's early history, so thorough-
ly identified with her best interests, any history
of Jay County would be very incomplete without
a considerable sketch of his life and labors in it.
In October, 1838, he was sent by the American
Home Missionary Society and Presbytery of
Chilicothe, Ohio, to St. Mary's, Ohio, as a Mis-
sionary to the new settlements in that region.
Early in the summer of 1840 he received a vague
verbal message to the effect that somebody, thirty
or forty miles west of St. Mary's, wanted to see
180 REV. I. N. TAYLOli,
him. lie wrote to tliis unknown person a sealed
letter, directing it " To any Presbyterian west or
south-west of St. Mary's, within forty miles, greet-
ing," and confided it "to any hunter going to the
Wabash." He took it himself ten miles, to the
extremity of squatter sovereignity habitation.
West of that, to the Wabash, was an untouched
wilderness of the most dismal character, yet that
letter, thus committed to the wild, reached its
providential destination, and was speedily answer-
ed by Mr. Matthew P. Montgomery, who lived
on the farm now owned by Peter Walter, of Wa-
bash Township, urging him to come there, and
telling him of a small community of Christian
people in his neighborhood. Soon after, Mr. Tay-
lor made his first visit to Indiana. From what is
since Celina to New Corydon, there was then
scarcely a sign of human existence, and the first
farm south of the Wabash was that of Mr. David
Adams, where he found the whole neighborhood
assembled raising a double log barn. Of that
event Mr. Taylor says : " The patriarch of the oc-
casion, as he ever was till he died, was Father
Reuben Montgomery. After a few salutations he
led us on down the creek some three miles to the
house of his son-in-law, Ii'aTowle, where, on Sat-
urday night, our first religious meeting was held.
The day following was a memorable Sabbath to
those sheep in the wilderness — memorable for re-
REUBEN MONTGOMERY. 181
viving the sacred memories of the Sabbath, the
sanctuaries of the past, and for kindling the hopes
of a better future, when this wilderness might re-
joice and blossom as the rose."
Six weeks afterward, Mr. Taylor returned,
preached for several days at Ira Towle's, some-
times in the barn, and organized a Presbyterian
church, of thirteen members, of whom Jacob Bos-
worth, (though living twelve miles distant,) Harry
E.eed and M. P. Montgomery were elected elders.
In the afternoon, on the Sabbath, there was a
meeting for the relation of personal Christian ex-
perience. Most of the male members of that
gathering have gone to their eternal home. No
one can paint so true a picture of these men as
Mr. Taylor, who writes thus : " Father Mont-
gomery, brought into the Kingdom in advanced
life, impressed me that common sense was his great
excellence. His story of his conversion showed
that the truth and spirit of Christ had seized upon
this ruling power in his conversion, and had ever
since made this trait the chief medium of keeping
him from error and preserving his piety. A
memorable morsel in his prayer on that occasion
illustrated how child-like sympathy may rule in
company with a masterly will. It was this : ' O,
Lord, thou knowest there is a great work to be
done here in Jay County, and we have none to
look to but Thee.' He was a famous framer.
182 IRA TOWLE.
Many houses and barns in .Jay will long be the
remembrancers of his industry, though men, with
noisier tool covered with board and nail his tirmly
jointed workmanship. And so, I think, his strong
minded counsels, though covered by noisier advo-
vocates of moral and religious reform, will remain a
part of the hidden frame-work of new society in
"Ira Towle's hesitating yet honest manner made
me say of him, to myself: There is a man that
minds his own aifairs and keeps his own secrets,
and wishes all others to do the same. I found
him so. Never obtrusive, he was ahvays in his
place, doing, not proposing or discussing, his full
share towards all the interests of society. In
keeping with all else, he, dying without any im-
mediate heirs, bequeathed most of his property to
the cause of Home Missions, amounting to over
two thousand dollars.
"Harry Reed's account was unstudied and highly
emotional. Some odd, blunt expression about
God's handling him mighty rough, would make
us smile, and the next minute we would find our-
selves weeping with him that wept, while he was
telling of the almighty love of Jesus. With him
religion was an inwrought principle and law of
life, that would always prevail over the transient
errors of sudden impulse or hasty speech. I con-
fided to him, more than any man in those days,
M. p. MONTGOMERY. 183
all my cares. His industry, integrity, zeal and
tender sensibility made him a valuable exponent
of those elementary lessons of piety and charity
which it was my care to instill into the heart of
society in those early days. He was, emphat-
ically, a worker in the moral as in the natural
wilderness, and in both his works do follow him.
"M. P. Montgomery, a man of superior intellect
and of views and aspirations wide and high,
with both natural and acqnired gifts of speech,
gave ns, in addition to his Christian evidences,
the lively* impression that he was, all over, from
the sole of his foot up, for more than six feet, to
the crown of his masterly head, a Presbyterian.
It was to be expected that such a man would hail
with joy the hopeful begin'bing of better times.
He deprecated the prevailing type of religion in
the country, as contemptuous of solid knowledge,
dignified forms, and practical correctness. He
was chiefly instrumental in getting, at so early a
date, the first meeting-house, the block house,
Limberlost Chapel. Soon after the organization
of the church, he attended, as elder, a meeting of
the Presbytery, at New Carlisle, Ohio. It was
the era of the great Washingtonian Temperance Re-
form. One night there was a grand meeting.
Several eminent speakers were present, among
them the famous Dr. Hall, of overwhelming brass
bugle eloquence. Mr. Montgomery having
184 M. p. MONTGOMERY.
learned that very many christian professors of that
region were opposed to the Reform, delivered sucli
a scathing philippic as entitled him to the lionship
of the evening. He employed the bitter language
of John the Baptist and of Christ resj)ecting the
Jews suffering vile characters to enter the King-
dom of God before them, neither entering them-
selves nor suffering those that would to enter.
He explained, expanded and applied the terms
hypocrites, generation of vipers, etc., with resist-
less force. Dr. Hall was so pleased that he invit-
ed him home with him to Dayton, and sent him
back to Jay with forty dollars for the completion of
the little chapel.
"His stay in the county was onl}- for a few years.
Indeed his stay on earth was not long, for, having
removed to the vicinity of Fort Wayne, he had
scarcely fixed his family comfortably on a new
farm, when he was called to another sphere,"
In 184:1 Ira Towle gave the land for a church
site and cemetery. Logs were hewed on four
sides and a house erected that year — the first
church building in the county.
The first temperance meeting in that part of
the county were held in it, and, at one of these.
Judge J. M. Haynes made the first public speech.
The people who so long worshiped within its walls,
abandoned it in 1862, occupying their new house
KEV. I. N. TAYLOR.
Though forsaken the rustic church is not for-
THE LIMBERLOST CHURCH.
The memory of its dear old walls is linked with
the cherished remembrance of the many loved ones
who sleep near it. As the first altar consecrated
to God in the new county, its appearance is res-
cued from oblivion for the eyes of futute genera-
tions. The church organization is now Congre-
Mr. Taylor accompanied Dr. Bosworth to Port-
land, where the doctor announced him, on account
of his youth, as a " Presbyterian boy preacher."
180 EEV. I. N. TAYLOR.
A large audience assembled at Portland, in the
old court-house, "a log building, long, low and dis-
mal," and there he preached his first sermon in
that part of the county, taking for his text that
first divine call after apostate man — " Adam,
where art thou?" Several sermons followed, en-
gaging the unwonted attention of the people for
several days and nights.
The statements and reasonings ofDr. Bosworth's
" boy preacher " was the same he had insisted on
among his neighbors since they had pitched their
tents together in the wilderness. But he had
longed to have these truths fastened on men's
minds and consciences in a professional way, and
his delight on this occasion was great.
For about two years after his first entrance,
Mr. Taylor made frequent visits in Jay, and, grad-
ually, a desire sprang up within him to labor for
the mental and moral welfare of the county. This
was more natural, because, by reason of certain
predispositions, he had cherished from boyhood
the desire to help lay the foundations of society
in a new country. During these visits his ac-
quaintance was enlarged at ]^ew Corydon, Cam-
den and in the Hawkins neighborhood, and his
desire grew into a fixed intention to spend the
vigor and strength of his life in this destitute and
difiicult, but promising field for intellectual and re-
EEV. I. N. TAYLOR. 187
He moved into the county in February, 1843,
and first occupied a cabin belonging to "William H.
Montgomery, two miles east of Westchester. In
addition to preaching to the flock he had gath-
ered there, he preached in the Hawkins cabin for
Father Philip Eusminger, then, f.s he still is,
(though now in his ninetieth year,) the meek and
venerable white-haired patriarch of that neigh-
borhood. Mr. Taylor's veneration for "first
things " and interest in pioneer experience was
greatly gratified at Mrs. Hawkins'. The vigor-
ous blood and daring nerve of "Old Kentuck"
animated her frame as she would recount the
thrilling scenes of their first year among the
savage beasts and savage men that then walked
curiously and stealthily around her rude earnest
of a coming civilization.
Then, on the Wabash, Mr. Taylor would
preach for the neighbors in the cabin' of Robert
Webster, where some of the most solemn and af-
fecting scenes of his ministry were enacted. Here
he was aided by the self-denying Missionary
Pogue, who, then a student at Lane Seminary,
Ohio, spent a three months' vacation in Jay
County, and afterward went to the Sandwich
Islands, without a wife, because Miss Elizabeth
Webster, the intelligent and Christian housekeep-
er in that cabin, had gone to her grave and her
home in heaven.
188 KEY. I. N. TAYLOR.
In 1845 Mr. Taylor, desiring to attend theolog-
ical lectures at Lane Seminar}', moved to Cin-
cinnati. That movement he always regretted ;
returned in two years and settled in Portland
very early in the spring of 1847. For two years
he was Agent of the American Sunday School
Union, and he accomplislied a great woi*k in or-
ganizing schools and awakening in the minds of
the people an interest in that most useful and
effective branch of Christian labor. While living
in Portland he engaged in an unprofitable mer-
cantile enterprise with Calvin D. Searl. Late in
1850 he became Principal of the Jay County
Seminary, which position he held for two years.
During these years, looking forward to the founding
of a school, he selected the knoll on the Salimonie
by the spring as a suitable spot, and purchased the
land of John Smith. The remainder of Mr. Tay-
lor's life m Jay is inseparably connected with
Liber College, and will appear in the following
To build an institution of learning in some new
region "where no man had laid a foundation,"
had long been a darling enterprise in the mind of
I. N. Taylor. In many respects he was well
fitted for the work. He greatly loved life in a
new country. He has spent but a mere fragment
of his mature life elsewhere than in the begin-
nings of society. This region of tall forests and
log-cabins, wide lire places and liberal chim-
ney-corners, its germs of society planted with
plain, genial, warm-hearted pioneers, was well
suited to his tastes and talents. His early settle-
ment here, extensive acquaintance and sympathy
witli the people, great influence, unflagging en-
ergy, and, under adverse circumstances, obstinate
will, all aided in adapting him to the work he was
190 LIBEK COLLEGE.
about to commence. In autumn, 1842, in com-
pany with Jacob Bosworth and Harry Reed, he
iirst crossed, on fo_ot, the present site of Liber.
" While these three men were sitting by the spring to
which many scores now daily resort, the covenant of his boy-
hood came vividly to the mind of the Missionary, then in his
twenty-fifth year, and an impression sudden and overwhelm-
ing as from the whisper or impress of a ministering angel,
was settled on his |heart, that on this spot he should dwell
and execute his covenant with God and a sainted brother."*
]!Tothing, however, was done toward the enter-
prise, then so dimly painted in the visions of the
future, for ten years, except that Mr. Taylor ne-
gotiated for the land. . When he moved uj)on the
ground he called the place Salem.
The first public meeting ever held to consider
the subject of building a school there, assembled
in the " old peeled-log meeting house," near by
what was then known as the Salem Cemetery,
February 5th, 1853. The persons present were
Rev. I. ]N[. Taylor, Jonathan Lowe, Jacob Bos-
worth, J. H. Topping, Obadiah Winters, Wilson
Milligan, David Hays, George W. Templer, Wil-
iam McCormick, Joseph C. Hawkins, John G.
Spade, Augustus Bosworth and R. S. Taylor.
Mr. Winters was chosen Chairman and Mr. Tay-
* Liber Lamp, September, 1858.
LIBER COLLEGE. 191
" The day was bitterly cold ; the wind blew a heavy gale,
and the snow drifted through the crevices of the cabin, so
that not a spot could be found in the room where the Clerk
could keep the paper dry. So unusually bitter was the cold
storm that a large red-hot stove did not warm the ' peeled-log
I. 'N. Taylor proposed an institution to be called
Salem Academy, and argued that "such an en-
terprise would be more in harmony with the un-
developed state of the country and the concep-
tions of the people, as well as within their
means. '^ Mr. Bosworth proposed a college, argu-
ing that " no school of high grade conld be made
without foreign aid, and that such assistance
could be more readily obtained for a college."
This proposition prevailed, and the school was
named " Liber College," by suggestion of Mr.
Taylor. After this the village took the same
name. April 20th, 1853, a notice appeared in the
Portland Journal giving notice of the first elec-
tion of officers, and on the 3d of May the corpo-
rators met and organized themselves into the
" Liber College Joint Stock Company." Shares
were placed at $20 each, and the payment of $100
entitled the holder to a perpetual scholarship. At
this meeting the following officers were elected,
being the first officers of the corporation : Trus-
tees, Jacob Bosworth, Wilson Milligan, Obadiah
* Liber Lamp, October, 1858.
192 LIBEB COLLEGE.
Winters, "Wilbur Morelions, Ebenezer Wood-
bridge and Robert Huey ; Treasurer, G. W. Tem-
pler. On the same day the Board of Trustees
held their first meeting and elected I. K Taylor
President for four years. Afterward, A. Bos-
worth was elected Clerk. During that summer
the Board put forth a manifesto, from which the
following are extracts :
"Liber is a latin word of four meanings, which
the school-boy sometimes expresses in the rhyme :
> ' Liber is a child,
And Liber is free ;
Liber is a book,
And the bark of a tree.'
"The significance of the title may be expressed
in a sentence. We established, on liberal prin-
ciples, in a new woodland, an institution for the
education of our children, in books of practical
Science, Religion and Liberty. * * *
Rarely was a College, or even a first rate High
School, founded, furnished and finished in the
time of one mortal generation. This we know,
and are not crazed or gloomed. The growth of a
good Institution is usually like that of an oak. As
men in middle life and old age do not plant acorns
expecting themselves to sit under the expanded
and towering boughs of the embryo oak, so we
are not oppressed with swollen fancies of speedy
and easy maturity. We plant the acorn. It will
germinate this very year. Henceforth onr child-
ren will defend the sappling, root, bark and blos-
som. But the broad, deep shade of the great tree
we willingly consecrate to those generations who
will live and learn over our graves."
A college campus of six acres was donated to
the company by I. N. Taylor and Jonathan Lowe.
Early in this year, (1858,) the Board contracted
with I. IST. Taylor to build a house, suitable for the
preparatory classes, for one thousand two hundred
dollars. The result was that in November of that
year the house was ready to be occupied.
In August the site itself was cleared of its nativ e
beach trees and old logs.
194 LIBER COLLEGE.
On the 5th of ISTovember, 1853 the school was
opened; I. N. Taylor, President and Mrs. Julia
A. Weber, Principal of the Primary Department.
During the lirst term Deacon Jonathan Lowe
proposed to place in school a negro boy, living
with him, called George Lowe, but whose real
name was George Hunter. TJiis displeased a
number of the stock-holders, and they became di-
vided on the question of admitting colored persons
to the privileges of the school. At once the pre-
vious harmony among the original founders was
broken. The language of the Constitution of the
College being that " the purpose of this Institu-
tion is to furnish to any person whomsoever the
facilities of a common and collegiate education,"
those stockholders opposed to the admission of
colored persons ceased to co-operate in the man-
agement of the College. Afterward (March 22,
1855,) the stockholders voted to reimburse those
who had paid stock, not understanding that ne-
groes could be admitted to the school. The result
of the withdrawal of these persons was the foun-
ing of Farmers' Academy, of which more will be
The first year the school opened with twenty
scholars, forty-three being in attendance dur-
ing the course of the year. The entire cost of
teaching and agency during the first two years was
only about one thousand one hundred and fifty
LIBER COLLEGE. 195
dollars, during which time, for teaching the Pri-
mary Department four months, Mrs. Weber re-
ceived but twenty-seven dollars. Those were in-
deed times of " small things."
At the opening of the third year of the school
Miss Sarah Jane Miller was the Primary teacher,
which position she held for three years. The
number of trustees was increased to twelve. Dur-
ing the year I. N. Taylor resigned his office as
President of the Board and J. 0. Hawkins was ap-
pointed to the office. Two rows of rooms were
built for self-boarding students, and several new
residents came into the village and built houses.
Nothing of especial interest occurred then until
the fifth year, during which the teachers were
as follows : President, I. N". Taylor, Principal
Primary Department, Miss S. J. Miller, Assistants,
K. S. Taylor, Pulaski Mills, Mattie Tyson, Ed-
mund Lockett, "W. G. Montgomery and HattieA.
Weber. The whole number of students during
the year was one hundred and seventy-four.
The commencement exercises at the close of
that year were distinguished by the graduation of
the first class, consisting of M. W. Diggs, Pulaski
Mills and R. S. Taylor. Immediately after the
latter received his diploma, he stepped forward
with Miss Fanny W. Wright, and the newly-
crowned Bachelor of Arts lost the first part of his
196 THE PIONEER COLLEGE.
The following is an extract from the peculiarly
appropriate Baccalaureate Address of President
" MISSION OF THE PIONEER COLLEGE.
" In new countries there is as much native mind, of good
order, in proportion to the number of inhabitants, as in old
countries ; and, considering the degenerating influences of
sumptuous and fashionable life in many places, there is even
more. Uncouth men and women may become new settlers,
but weak and cowardly men and women are not likely to
brave the toils and dangers of pioneer life. Moreover, these
toils and dangers invigorate the brain, and effectuate a
strength of character which ease and luxury only hinder and
prevent. Hence, the children of pioneers are more likely to
exhibit that amount of healthy brain and active nervous or-
ganization, which we call natural talent, than any other class
whatever. It is my belief, after the observation of twenty
years, that among the first and second purchasers of new ter-
ritory, there is a higher order of vigorous mind than in any
other condition of society. In old England there is a class —
the real aristocracy of the kingdom — whose very aristocracy
consists in superior physical and mental development. To
this they are devoted. But in America there is no aristocra-
cy but that of wealth and fashion, whose votaries, generation
after generation, diminish in physical and mental power. It
is left to the perils, privations and gigantic civilization con-
flicts of the wilderness, to preserve a type of muscle and
brain, undiminished in compass and vitality. But in such
new regions as ours, this natural talent is covered up under
the rubbish of mere neglect. The trees, and brush, and
grass, and mud, are but the emblems of a more concealing
intellectual and moral wilderness, in which the ver}^ germs of
genius are buried from the world.
THE PIONEER COLLEGE. 19Y
" Nothing but the broad and bright glare of High School
and College light, will ever reveal these specimens of mental
riches, even to the consciousness of the gifted sons and
daughters of the forest. For, the drudgeries of pioneer life,
the paucity of books, the inefficiency of common schools, the
limitation of travel and conversation, the everlasting staying
at home, the absence of all sight of great men and great
things, the weakness of most professional efforts in the sick
room, at the bar and in the sacred desk, the raillery of the po-
litical platform, — all these conspire to show us not only the
want of adequate caiises, but the existence of hindering
causes, respecting the elicitation of true talent and genius.
Nothing short of an actual experiment, of advancing scien-
tific and literary learning, will draw from their retreats the
best specimens of mind. But this will ; it will do it in any
new country, and do it effectually. Many a brain of fine
compass and vigorous pulse, throbbing under the compres-
sure of miserable common school facilities, aches for a larger
surrounding, and turns to the young College, like steel to the
magnet, the very day the opportunity is given to gratify the
" Generally, the circumstances of new settlers, for many
years, do not suffer them to send their sons and daughters
abroad, to the good Institutions of other places. And be-
sides, there is a natural, and not much unreasonable reluct-
ance, on the part of our youth, to go suddenly from the rude
paths of new-land life to the gorgeous highways of refine-
" In view of all this, it is simply certain that hundreds of
the finest minds of the section, scattered about in all our new
regions, must forever remain lost to the world and to them-
selves, without the revealing presence and vivifymg power of
the Home College.
" But plant the College : open out to view the hitherto un-
known beauties of Literature and grandeurs of Science ; fur-
nish the facilities to home-born intellect, to unfold itself to
198 R. S. TAYLOR,
kindred and to country ; and while yon thus quicken the
general pulse of society, you set on fire the best types of
youthful mind, and dissolving the bonds that would other-
wise have forever bound them to mammon and stupid world-
liness, you redeem them to the glorious freedom and power
of knowledge. With joy they hasten to the founts of truth,
and drinking a little at first, then more and more, thej"^ rise to
higher views of life and duty, and doom ; and vow, at the altar
of truth, to spend their whole lives in helping through the
earth the triumphs of wisdom. What a redemption ! No
tongue can tell what an amount of personal joys and public
influence are thus secured to societ}' by the Home College.
" By the redemption of buried intellect, then, O heart of
our country, cherish thy own Home College."
Rev. M. W. Diggs is now pastor of the Con-
gregational Church at ,Pisgah, Mercer Connty,
Ohio, Pulaski Mills has given his time chieflj
to teaching, since his "graduation, and^^ in June,
1864, was appointed by the County Commission-
ers, School Examiner of Jay County for three
E. S. Taylor studied law with L. M. Ninde, at
Fort Wayne, and j^is now partner in the law firm
of Kinde & Taylor, He has always given much
attention to music, and has acquired considerable
well-deserved note as a musical composer. For
several years before he graduated, the words and
music for the College exhibitions were, most of
them, of Ills composition. Many of his pieces
have found their w^ay into the later musical pub-
lications, while others have been issued in sheet
K. S. TAYLOR, 199
form. That toucliingly patriotic piece, " Oh,
Wrap the Flag around me, boys," which has a
national reputation, is of his composing. His
law-partner is also a Jay Countian. L. M. I^inde,
Esq., was raised on his father's farm near Cam-
den, graduated at Farmers' College, near Cincin-
nati, and has since been a successful • lawyer at
In 1855 the Lib6r Glee Club was formed, of
which R. S. Taylor was chorister. In the sum-
mer of 1856 it gave concerts at different places,
which were the first ever given in the county.
During the summer session of 1857, Pulaski
Mills was Principal of Liber College. For the
year 1858-9, Miss Jane A. Montgomery was
Principal of the Primary Department.
In March, 1857 Yynul Arnett was chosen Pres-
ident of the Board, in the room of J. C. Hawkins,
resigned, which position he held for two years.
With the close of the sixth year of the Institu-
tion, President Taylor closed his official connec-
tion with it, and, in September, 1859, moved to
Illinois. For a paragraph, that he may not be
misunderstood, the author must speak plainly.
Thus ended Mr. Taylor's fourteen years in Jay
County. During all this time he devoted his
great energies and talents to the intellectual and
moral interests of her people. Unambitious of
wealth or fame, he gave his time and means un-
200 REV. I. N. TAYLOR.
reservedly to pusli forward the enterprises in which
lie was engaged. Especially is this true of his
labors in converting the wilderness, on the Little
Salinionie, into the village of Liber, and building
there a school, at which hundreds of Jay County
youths, otherwise ignorant and uninfluential, have
tasted the higher branches of knowledge.
Many of these youths are now the teachers of
the county, many others teach elsewherC, and still
others are filling various important positions in
society. "With small means, great obstacles and
many other discouragements, he, nevertheless,
accomplished a great v/ork. But his usefulness
was but beginning, had his course not been such,
before his departure and since, as to deeply grieve
and mortify his many former friends, and cripple
He was a graduate of Athens College, Ohio,
possessed a clear, strong mind, and profound
knowledge of human nature. This attracted to
him many warm friends, and gave him, for many
years, great influence. His sermons were char-
acterized by profoundness of thought and beauty
of expression, but were long, and rather quietly
delivered. He now resides in Nebraska, and is a
survej^or on the Pacific Eailroad.
Accompanying some statements of his early life
in Jay, which have been substantially embodied
in this work, President Taylor sent the following
KEV, I. N. TAYLOR. 201
note. Thoiigli intended to be private, no harm
can result, or wrong be done, in giving it here, as
a farewell glimpse of the workings of that mind
which planned and hoped so much for the future
welfare of Jay County. It cannot fail to awaken
mingled emotions in the minds of his former
numerous friends in this region.
^Nashville, Illinois, New Year's, 1863.
Mr. M. "W. Montgomery :
Dear Sir : I have spent my New Year's in preparing the
rough sketch contained on these leaves. With much diffi-
culty I compose my shattered nerves to write auytliing that
brings up the events that so interested me in Jay — that dear
scene of all my effective existence, and where my heart yet
lingers in imperishable longings, but from which I am sun-
dered forever * * * *
"Wishing you much pleasure and success in your good
work, I remain, Yours, very truly,
I. N. Taylor.
In 1859 the Board of Trustees invited Rev.
Ebenezer Tucker, of Jo Daviess County, Illinois,
to become President of the College. He accepted,
and moved to Liber that year. He has since
been constantly engaged in the college, preparing
scores of young men and women to be teachers of
common and graded schools. He was educated
at Whitesboro, Kew York and Oberlin College.
Prior to his residence in Illinois, he was, for eight
years, Principal of the Union School, at Spartans-
202 KEV. EBENEZER TUCKER.
During the first term of the college year of
1859-60, Elihu H. Yotaw, now a student at
Wheaton College, Illinois, was the Principal.
Since that time the Principals of the Primary
Department have been Miss Edith S. Bailiff, of
Fulton, Ohio, Miss Bell A. Johnston, now
Mrs. G. W. Loofbourrow, and Miss Helen
M. Johnston, of Bell Centre, Ohio.
The Presbyterian church in Portland divided
in 1854, and the seceding members organized a
Congregational church -at Liber.
The first Musical Institute held in the county
was at Liber, in December, 1863, by W. S. Mont-
gomery, and M. Z. Tinker, of Terre Haute, In-
Concerning the Liber Spring, now owned by
D. 0. Baker, Esq., the following letter em-
braces all that need be said. It was writ-
ten without the faintest idea of its appearing here,
and is, consequently, as fresh and lively as the
limpid waters that still rise from that dearly loved
fountain under the hill. It is inserted without the
knowledge of the writer, for who is so well pre-
pared to speak of that Spring as he who, for more
than ten years, made it daily visits ?
Fort Wayne, Indiana, July 18tli, 1864.
Dear Friend M. : After" as much reflection as I can
readily give to any one subject, with the mercury at 95°,
I can think of nothing that I would particularly wish to have
THE LIBEK SPRING. 203
remembered in your history, that you would be at all likely
to omit, except the old spring, at Liber. I would give the
price of two copies of your history for one good swig of its
clear, cold water, now. I speak of it, fearing that since the
town has been built up, with a score of wells in its immediate
neighborhood, and since some of the old settlers have passed
away, some to other scenes of earthly toil, and some to fields
where yet purer water flows, and since the war has opened
its ghastly fountains, to the flowing of which all our hearts
contribute in some degree, the old spring may have lost some
of its ancient prestige. But it ought not to be forgotten ; it
•was once famous in its way, and the very object of your book
is to i)erpetuate the memory of those humble things that
made up the life of the pioneers of Jay County. When I first
knew it, that Spring was noted for miles around. The coun-
try was thinly settled, and good wells were rare, and good
springs still more so.
The numerous veins that oozed through the banlvs of the
Salimouie, and painted their way to the water's edge with a
slimy green and yellow glazing, seemed almost uniformly,
judging from taste and odor, to have come from some locality
where sulphur much abounded. A pure, clear, cold spring
as this was, was rarely found, and was highly prized. There
was no house very near it ; — there had been one years before
on the hill just above, but it was then a mere heap of rotten
logs. It may have been a dwelling house, or only a hunter's
lodge. I remember picking up some pieces of broken china
near it. The painted flowers on them were as bright and
fresh as new. The cheeks of the girl who washed them must
have long since lost their roses. The old spring was then a
mere hole in the ground ; it had not even the usual protection
of a sycamore gum. There was a well-worn path leading to
it, into which several others converged, and which was much
traveled by those who lived up the Salimonie, on their way
to and from the county seat. There was at one time a gourd
supplied to it by some public-spirited person, and kept hanar-
204 THE LIBER SPRING.
ing on a bush that overhung the spring, for the accommoda-
tion of thirsty passers-by ; but usually there were no such
luxurious superfluities to be had : those who sought refresh-
ment there had to get upon their hands and knees, like the
cattle and deer, which were also equally welcome to its
But the circumstance most interesting to my mind of any
connected with the old spring, and one which shows what
little things determine the course of human affairs, is that its
existence there determined the location of " Liber College"
where it is. I well remember the day when my father and
mother first went out to examine the land on which the Col-
lege now stands, and with what glowing enthusiasm they
spoke, when they came back, of the " pure, cold spring" that
was there. There were a good many difficulties in the way
of getting the land : the price asked was considered high,
and the title was in the hands of several persons, so that it
took many conveyances and considerable trouble and outlay
to secure it ; and in the long and persevering eflForts that re-
sulted in its purchase, I know that the spring was a leading
motive. If you will examine the original " manifesto" of the
College you will fiind the spring prominently and honorably
I do request that if you have not alreadj' done so, and j'our
book is not now in type, you will make some mention of the
" old spring."
R. S. TAYLOR.
FAKMEBS' ACADEMY GENERAL ITEMS.
The first meeting to consider the subject of
founding this school was held at the house of G.
W. Templer, then living at College Corner, in the
spring of 1854. Another meeting was afterward
held at David O. Whipple's. The members of
the first Board of Trustees were Jacob Bosworth,
President; Obadiah "Winters, G. W. Templer,
James Templer, J. G. Spade, John J. Adair, Geo.
Blazer, John Reed, Lewis J. Bell, Augustus Bos-
James Templer, now a resident of Indianapolis,
donated the site for the building, and Jacob Bos-
worth built the house — a frame, twenty-five by
fifty-six feet, and two stories high — for $900.
Mr. C. C. Chamberlain, a graduate of Antioch
College, taught for the first six months, commen-
cing December 10th, 1854, Miss Katurah "Winters
being Principal of the Primary Department. The
first term of the second ^-ear was tauglit by Mr.
John Phipps ; the rest of that year Mr. Robert
Milliken ^vas the Principal, Miss Lytlia Sheller
being the lady Assistant. The third year Kev.
J. D, Parker and Miss M. C. Hall were the teach-
ers. In 1857 N. G. BuflP, Esq., was the Principal,
and at diftcrent times during that year Miesee
Katnrah Winters, Rachel Jackson and Mary Bos-
worth were Assistants.
FAKMERS ACADEMY. '
On the 5th of July, 1858, the school was sold
to the Northern Indiana Conference of the Meth-
odist Episcopal Church, and Rev. W. F. Hemen-
COLD WINTER. 207
way became Principal, and Mrs. Hemenway, As-
sistant, which position they held for two years.
There was then no school until in the spring of
1864, when Rev. J. E. Erwin became the Princi-
pal, and is the present incumbent. The Academy
is located in one of the most beautiful groves that
can be seen any where.
The last Post Ofiipe (College Corner) established
in the county, was near this place, on May 30th,
1862. Jonas Votaw was the first Postmaster ; —
Jacob Bosworth is the present one.
In June, 1847, the County Commissioners con-
tracted with Jacob Bosworth to build the " Jay
County Seminary." It was not finished until
1848. The first term of school in it was taught
by Mr. TFiomas T. Loomis. For the year 1850
Mr. Calvin J. Parker was the Principal, and for
the two following years Rev. I. N, Taylor occupied
that position, which was the last school taught in
it. In 1853 the county sold the building to Elias
Bromagem, who occupied it for several years,
when it was forfeited to the county, who in 1860
resold it to B. W. Hawkins, who has since made
it his residence.
The cold winter of 1842 and '43 will long be
remembered by the early settlers of Jay and the
adjoining counties. On the 12th of November,
1842, the ground was covered by a fall of snow,
which did not entirely leave until April, 1843.
208 COLD WINTER.
After the 8th of January the whole country was
one vast field of ice, caused by rain which fell
heavily and froze, forming a thick sleety ice. On
this snow fell nearly afoot in depth, and though it
was partly thawed by rain, yet frost and snow
again followed. The sleet prevented the hogs
getting nuts and roots, or the wild turkeys from
stirring the leaves ; and long before spring the
scanty provision made by the settlers for horses
and cattle was gone, and great numbers of cattle
perished. S»me farmers were able to keep
most of their stock by cutting down elm,
linden, and other soft-wood trees, and letting
the stock take the brush. This, with a supply of
salt and a small piece of salt fat pork to a cow
per day, took them through ! The hogs fared still
worse : thousands perished from actual starvation.
Some men saved some of their hogs by killing
the weaker ones and feeding them to the stronger.
Deer became so poor they were easily taken, and
men and wolves slew them in great numbers.
Another trying time for the settlers of Jay
County was the rainy summer of 1844. All the
streams overflowed the low lands many times
during the season. The farmers found it impos-
sible to plow or })hint, and no crop was raised.
Large numbers of families left their cabins and
clearings, and moved back to the older settlements,
most of whom never returned. Had it been pos-
sible to have sold property, the county would have
been almost depopulated.
Among the pioneers of Jay was an oddity call-
ed Johnny Appleseed. His proper name was
John Chapman. Manj^ years ago he brought
from Central Ohio, two bushels of apple-seed, on
the back of an ox, and cleared small patches of
ground on the headwaters of the Loraraie, An-
glaise, St. Mary's and Wabash rivers, besides va-
rious other places, and planted apple-seeds. In
the early settlement of this county, he was wan-
dering about, from one nursery to another, camp-
ing wherever night overtook him, selling trees.
He had a nursery on the Wabash one mile east of
]^ew Cory don. He never carried a gun or wore
a sound piece of clothing, though he possessed
considerable property ; never slept in a bed, or
ate at a table ; had no place he called home ; was
a devoted Swedenborgian in religion, and died
near Fort Wayne in 1845. He had once been a
fine business man, but an accident had caused a
partial derangement of his mind. The trees from
his nurseries are bearing fruit in a dozen different
counties in Indiana, and thousands are enjoying
the fruit who never saw or heard of Johnny Ap-
The first newspaper ever published in Jay
County was The Portland Journal^ issued in the
summer of 1852, by Mr. James M. Bromagen,
editor and proprietor. In politics it was neutral.
The very first sheet struck from the press was
carried away in triumph by D. W. MciSTeal. The
printing office was in the second story of what is
now the Franklin House. In about two years it
was purchased by John T. Hoover, who contin-
ued its publication, under many difficulties, until
some time in the winter of 185G-'7, when it was
discontinued. Its circulation was about three
hundred copies. No complete file of it is in
On the 20th of February, 1856, Eev. I. N". Tay-
lor issued, at Liber, The Liber Lamjp, a small,
four-column weekly paper, devoted to the general
interests of the College. It was first printed in
the basement of the College, and had about four
hundred subscribers. Its emblematical head was
"Science, Religion, Liberty," and its motto,
" Semper Liber, Ifeuter Nunquam.'''' In this form
it passed throiigh the first volume. The second
volume, which closed its career, was published by
E. S. and W". J. Taylor, and the size reduced to a
sheet two columns wide and just seven inches
long, issued monthly.
In ISTovember, 1856, Mr. William McCormick
started The Jay County Democrat. In May,
1858, Mr. George H. Moore became a partner in
the ownership of the paper. It had about three
hundred subscribers, and was discontinued Octo-
ber 2Cth, 1850.
JOHNNY APPLESEED. 211
The Jay County Repitblican was first issued
in March, 1858, by Hon. J. P. C. Shanks and L.
M. Morrison. In a short time Mr. Morrison sold
to William S. Jones, and on the 13tli of April,
1859, the last number was issued.
The Jay Torch-Light was first issued Septem-
ber 8tli, 1859, by M. W. Montgomery. The
printing office was first in one room of the then
abandoned old brick Court House ; but fearing
the crazy old building would tumble down and
extingnlsh the lights the office was moved to Mil-
ler's building. The first few weeks it had three
hundred subscribers, but before the close of the
volume the number had increased to five
hundred and seventy-five. On the 18th of
July, 1861, R. C. Harper became one of the
proprietors, but re-sold to Mr. Montgomery
April 17th, 1863. At the close of the third vol-
ume Mr. Montgomery sold the paper to Mr. P. S.
Loof bourrow, who is the present proprietor.
The Jay County Times was issued August 1st,
1860, by George H. Moore, and discontinued in
the following spring.
It is not certainly known whether The Jay
County Clipper ever reached an actual existence
or not. However, one number made its appear-
ance in December, 1862, issued by Jacob Sim-
mons, and three or four more nuirfbers followed
semi-oceasionally during the winter, in one of
212 THE FIRST JAIL.
which it was hinted that the establishment would
freeze out if some one did not bring some wood —
and the paper has not been seen since.
On the 8th of October, 1863, Mr. C. C. Morical
commenced the publication of The Democratic
Review^ but in a few weeks abandoned it, since
which time it has been conducted by Dr. T.J.
Lafollet. It has about six hundred subscribers.
In May, 1862, the County Commissioners
opened sealed bids for building a new jail. The
bids were as follows :
Augustus Boswortli, $4,200
M. A. Reeder, Winchester, 4,000
Crowell, Conkel and Denney, 3,960
W. H. and M. W. Montgomery, 2,237
The latter firm having bidden |1,6C3 lower
than the others, was awarded the contract. They
completed the building by the following Decem-
ber. The iron cells were made and put up by
Macey, Kankin & Co., of Cincinnati. The total
cost of the jail was $6,600.
In 1861, Jonas Yotaw, Esq., was appointed a
member of the Board of Directors for the JS'orth-
ern Indiana State's Prison, which position he held
for two years.
Jay County has, as yet, no completed railroad.
Four tracks, passing through the county, are pro-
jected ; on three of them much grading has been
done. The map shows their names and routes.
GENERAL ITEMS. 213
In 1864 the County Commissioners purchased
John Williams' farm for four thousand dollars for
the use of the paupers of the county.
Jay County still has its hunters. Quite a com-
pany of old hunters are in the habit of making
yearly visits to Paulding County, Ohio, for the
purpose of hunting. John Williams, probably,
goes more frequently than others. He is a hunter
of considerable note, though he did not settle in
the county in those early days when the hunters
had undisputed possession of the territory. In the
winter of 1863-4, he and O. McKinstry killed
The census of Jay County was taken, for 1840,
by Morrison Rulon. for 1850 by J . M. Haynes and
K B. -Hawkins, for 1860, by J. K Templer and
The population, in 1840, was not taken by
townships, and is reported in total at 3,863. Dar-
ing that year 16,018 pounds of maple sugar were
made in the county.
POLTILATION IN 1850.
Richland, • 349
Wayne, , 705
Bear Creek, , 737
POPULATION IN 1860.
NATIVITY OP POPUIiATION,
Bom in the United States,. . . .
Born in Foreign Countries,. . .
On the night of the 4th of February, 1862, the
Treasury of Jay County was robbed of four
thousand six hundred doUars, of which one hundred
belonged to Doctor E. R. Sheffield, and about two
hundred dollars to B. W. Hawkins. County
TEEASUEY EOBBEEY. 215
Treasurer, Joseph P. Winters, Sheriff, J. E. Lotz,
and Auditor, W. G. Suttou, immediately set to
work to ferret out the perpetrators. They man-
aged, with great ingenuity and skill, spending
most of their time and employing some profes-
sional detectives. On the 6th of March, 1862,
William Brandon, of Union City, who was for
many years a merchant in Portland, and John
Barker, Samuel P. Johns and William Blackburn,
of Dayton, were arrested, brought before Judge J.
M. Haynes, and held to bail in the sum.'of $12,000
each. The county having no efficient jail at the
time. Barker was taken to Muncie, Johns and
Blackburn to Winchester, and Brandon was kept
in Portland at the Jay Inn, and guarded by the
citizens. In a few days Blackburn escaped. The
prisoners desired a change of venue, and were
sent to Muncie, Indiana, where, on the 30th of
April, 1862, the trial opened. The attorneys for
the State were Hon. J. M. Haynes, J. IS". Templer,
and J. R. Perdieu, of Portland, Hon. Walter
March, of Muncie, Judge Jer. Smith, of Winches-
ter, and J. F. Bowden, of Bloomfield. Attor-
neys for the defendants were Hon. F. E. Cuppy,
Dayton, Hon. David Kilgore and William Broth-
erton, Muncie, Judge James Brown and John J.
Cheney, of Winchester.
Barker was tried first. William Brandon
turned State's evidence, was released from trial,
216 TREASURY ROBBERY.
and became the cliief witness for the prosecution.
The testimony which- was phonographically re-
ported for The Jay Toi^ch-Light, by M. W. Mont-
gomery, developed the following facts :
Johns planned the robbery, Barker and Black-
burn did the robbing, and Brandon piloted them.
They got the keys of the treasurer's office and safe
from Mr. Winter's house. Barker's trial lasted
live days and resulted in his conviction, and a
sentence of three year's imprisonment. Johns'
trial also lasted five days, and he was sentenced to
four years in the penitentiary.
Barker and Johns were immediately taken to
the Michigan City penitentiary. John's case was
taken to the Supreme Court, on the point that,
though one of the accomplices in the larceqij^, he
was not, at any time, in the State of Indiana, and,
therefore, could not be tried in this State. The
Supreme Court sustained this view — a decision
which, though perhaps constitutional, is'certainly
a very dangerous one — and in a few months he
In May, 1862, Blackburn was again caught and
confined in the Muncie Jail, fi'ofn which he soon
escaped. He was, however, retaken in a few
months and placed in the new jail at Portland.
From this he also escaped by sawing oif the iron
bars in the windows. He was now retaken the
third time and tried at Winchester in September,
TREASURY ROBBERY. 217
1863, and sent to the penitentiary for seven
years — just half long enough. Thus, by the most
skillfully-planned and well-executed strategy, and
praiseworthy perseverance on the part of the
county officers and the attorneys of Portland, the
perpetrators of the greatest robbery ever commit-
ted in the county were brought to trial and con-
victed. The county never recovered any of the
lost money, and expended nearly ^2,000 more in
the catching and prosecution of the thieves. ,
For several years a lawsuit, resulting from a
horse-trade, had been in progress between Mr.
Elias Bromagem and Samuel Emery, a man of
bad character. During this time some one shot
at and slightly wounded Mr. Bromagem, who
then lived near Hill Grove, Ohio, and Emery was
accused of the crime. In May, 1862, William
Bromagen being at home from the army, on fur-
lough, met Emery on the street in Portland, and
after some words, Bromagem drew a revolver and
tired three shots at Emery, all of which took ef-
fect — one in the left arm, and two entering his
back, passed through his body. He ran through
K. Kirschbaum's store and up stairs in Miller's
building, and while endeavoring to shoot Broma-
gem from the window, fell and rolled down
stairs out into the street. He died May 31st,
1862. Bromagem immediately returned to the
218 GENERAL REMARKS.
A distinguished historian has said, " Blessed is
the nation whose annals are tiresome." Those
pages of a nation's history are most interesting
which record events that caused the nation to
weep and bleed — when the ship of State has been
convulsed bj mutinies or endangered by raging
storms, or the attacks of enemies. But when she
sails quietly, upon smooth seas, her crew loyal,
her flag honored in every port, the pages of her
history grow tedious. The historian delineates
not the peaceful, prosperous life of the nation, but
lingers about those great crises in her history,
from which she rises to a more glorious renown,
or falls into the pit of ruin. The history of Jay
County, likewise, decreases in interest as we re-
cede from those trials and incidents which cluster
around her early settlement, and enter upon the
prosperous quarter of a century which followed
her organization in 1836. During these years
her progress, though not rapid^ has been steady
and healthful. The long delay in the completion
of the railroads contemplated through her bor-
ders, has greatly hindered the accumulation of
wealth and development of her resources. There
are few events in these years prominent above the
monotonous routine of civilized life. How gladly
would we drop our record here :
■ " But there's a divinity that shapes our ends,"
GENERAL EEMAKKS. - 219
and the next chapter must recite the arousing of
the people of Jay County from their peaceful pur-
suits, to participate in the great struggle for na-
JAY COUNTY AND THE WAK.
The attack of the rebels upon Fort Sumter — in-
augurating the most gigantic contest the world
has ever seen — and President Lincoln's procla-
mation of April 14th, 1861, calling for seventj-
five thousand volunteers to put down the rebel-
lion, was received by the people of Jay County
with one mind. Traitors had appealed from the
peaceful court of the ballot-box, to the bloody ar-
bitrament of the sword and bullet, and were ruth-
lessly waging war upon the nation. The people
saw no way to preserve the honor and institu-
tutions of the country but to crush the rebellion
by force of arms. The contest soon assumed
proportions so vast as to astonish the world. Yet
CHARLES E. BENNETT. 22l
they did not swerve from their loyalty, and gave
to the authorities a hearty suppoi t. This unanim-
ity of sentiment was illustrated at the fall election
in 1861. Political parties hushed their bickerings
on former disputed questions, and patriotically di-
vided candidates and all voted one ticket. Since
the first year of the war this bright example has
not been followed. Parties, and their accompa-
nying strifes, mar the unity of the people in sup-
port of the holy struggle which has called forth to
the battle-field nearly one thousand of her patri-
Being distant from railroads and daily papers,
the people of the county did not so early awaken
to the realities of the war as those centres which
more quickly felt the heart-throb bin gs of the
wounded and bleeding country. For this reason
no full company was raised for the three months'
service ; but many went and entered companies
forming in other counties.
The first citizen of Jay Connty to volunteer
was Charles E. Bennett. He was a young
man, and student at Liber College. When he
read the call for troops he told President Tucker
that he was going. He went to Winchester,
joined a company there, but was rejected. But,
determined to serve his country, he went to Indi-
anapolis, joined company C, 8th Indiana regiment,
and by hiding his glasses for his near-sightedness,
222 THE FIRST COMPANY.
was accepted. He served his time out, and was
discharged. In 18G2, when the rallying cry was,
' '■ We arc coming-, Father Abraham,
Six hundred thousand more,"
he again enlisted in compan}' F, T5th regiment
Indiana volunteers, and this time gave his life for
his country. He died of disease while the compa-
ny was at Castillian Springs, Tennessee, about the
1st of December, 1862. He was a kind-hearted,
honest young man, and had been raised a Quaker.
The first effort made to raise a whole company
in Jay County, for the war was in July, 1861.
Quite a number from different parts of the county
had already gone — hastening, at the first clash of
arms, to the scene of conflict. Meetings were
held at several places in the county, at which
Judge J. M. Haynes, J. N. Templer and others
addressed the people. But at first volunteers
were slowly obtained, because the people had not
yet become warriors, and, beside, it was then con-
sidered by many as preposterous to think of rais-
ing a whole company in the county. But after
the first thirty men were obtained no more difii-
culty was experienced.
Those most actively engaged in enlisting the
company were Messrs. C. H. Clark, S. L. Wilson
and Nimrod Headington. On the 6th of August
they were ordered to report at Indianapolis ai
THE FIRST COMPANY. 223
once. Messengers were dispatched to all parts of
the county to notify the members of the compa-
ny. It was a very busy season ; but the mem-
bers of this company held their country's call
paramount to every other interest. The unmeas-
ured calico was left upon the counter ; the plow
remained in the furrow, and the scythe was left
to rust in the unmown meadow. The blessed
implements of peaceful industry were thrown
aside for the musket and sword. All hearts were
more than ever turned toward 'the war, and es-
pecially the brave boys who were hurrying into
the conflict. On the morning of August 9th a
great crowd of citizens assembled in Portland to
bid farewell to the first company Jay County sent
to the war for the Union. It was a trying hour
to the un warlike people of Jay. They had been
reared to love the arts of Peace ; but they loved
their country more, and now began to lay their
sons by hundreds upon her altar.
The parting scenes were thus sketched at the
time by Tlie Jay Torch-Light, more vividly than
they can be at this distant date :
" Early on Friday morning the ' reveille ' summoned the
soldiers together at Camp Ross, and a march around town
was the order. This the boys performed with the greatest
enthusiasm. They marched in front of each house where
any of them had been boarding, and gave them hearty cheers.
By this time the people from all i^arts of the county began to
assemble, to witness the departure of the volunteers and bid
224 THE PARTING.
" The town was soon crowded. Everything and everybody
was in motion; and as the afternoon approached, many coun-
tenances were serious and sorrowful. But the volunteers
seemed in the highest spirits and full of enthusiasm at the
pr()si)ect of an early chance to fight for their country and slay
rebels. The farmers of the county had tendered their services
with their teams, to take the boys to Winchester, so freely
that more teams were on the ground than could be used.
About one o'clock, P. M., the soldiers were drawn up in line,
the wagons and carriages brought out, and preparations were
being made to start. This was the last opportunity to say
' Farewell ' to the brave fellows who were now going to the
war, perhaps never to return ; and it was well improved. It
is useless for us to attempt a description of the scenes and
incidents of that parting. The streets were filled with men
and women crowding around the volunteers, shaking hands,
speaking words of encouragement, giving the parting charge,
and bidding farewell.
" It was an affecting scene. Few indeed were the eyes not.
wet with tears at that hour. The volunteers met the occasion
like soldiers : they wept, as good soldiers always can, but
they swerved not a moment in their parpose to go forth anl
fight for the maintenance of our glorious Government."
Amid loud cheers and the waving of hats and
handkerchiefs, the long train of wagons and car-
riages started, carrying two hundred persons, over
one hundred of whom were a citizens' escort. At
Winchester the citizers gladly entertained the
soldiers, and the next day they reached Indiana-
polis ; were sent to Camp Morton, and on the
11th were sworn into the United States service
for three years. Here they remained nearly one
month, when they were assigned to the 39th reg-
IN CAMP. 225
iment Indiana volunteers, company C, and were
then transferred to Camp Harrison, named in
honor of tbeir gallant Colonel, Tlios. J. Harrison,
who has been with them in all their meanderings
upon the theatre of war. Here and at Camp
Morton they were visited by many of the citizens
of Jay. They were constantly drilled until Sep-
temper 21st, when they marched Dixieward, ar-
riving at Louisville the next morning. Here they
were cordially welcomed by a sumptuous dinner,
and addressed by a member of the Kentucky
Legislature, who complimented them as being the
first regiment from Indiana to cross the Ohio
Kiver in response to Kentucky's call for help
against traitors, many of whom were those of her
own bosom. On platform cars they were at once
taken to Muldraugh's Hill, nearly fifty miles
south of Louisville, which was then considered
"the front," At Rolling Fork, on Salt Eiver,
they pitched tents, put out guards and pickets,
passed their first night in the south. The next
morning, gleeful at having marching orders, they
were early equipped and on the march. They
soon reached a stream, which they were ordered
to wade, after taking off their " pants," This was
fine sport, several things occurring which created
That was the first hard march experienced by
company C. Only those who have performed
226 IN cAi^ip.
similar marches can full}'' appreciate the hard-
ships of the soldiers during the remainder of the
march that day. The sun beamed down its most
scorching rays, the dust was several inches deep,
and the least stir in the air whirled it in suffocat-
ing clouds around them. They were heavily
burdened with knapsacks, hav'ersacks and accou-
trements ; but by constant rallying they reached
their destination about sunset. They were filed
off into an open field, where they were compla-
cently enjoying their rest, when a strange sound
started them to their feet with an inquiry of alarm
upon their countenances. It was the "long
roll," beat upon a false alarm. Their ears have
long since become familiar with that sound, yet
it never fails to start their blood and bodies
in quicker motion. Upon outspread blankets
they passed the night in such a sleep as only
wearied soldiers know how to appreciate.
On the 10th of October they " struck tents "
and marched to Camp ]^evin, twelve miles far-
ther South. The force collected at this camp was
the nucleus of what afterward became the o-rand
"Army of the Cumberland." It was near this
camp that the first blood of the Rebellion which
fell upon Kentucky soil, was shed. Forty picked
scouts (Jefferson Sewell and W. II. Blowers,
from company C,) were sent out under Lieutenant
Colonel Jones against a marauding body of two
KOBEKT G. JACKSON. 227
hundred rebels, near Bacon Creek. Taking a po-
sition in a log house — the residence of the widow
of the notorious villain, John A. Murrell — this
squad, without receiving any injury, repulsed the
rebels, wounding several. Sewell, by a timely
stepping out of the cabin door, was saved from a
It was here, also, that company C was first
called upon to lay some of its members in a sol-
dier's grave. In a quiet, country grave-yard, on
the banks of Nolin River, this sorrowing company
consigned to the tomb the remains of Sergeant
Robert G. Jackson, who died, December 6th,
1861, of typhoid fever. He was sick for a long
time in a church near the camp, used for a hospi-
tal, where the best care possible under the cir-
cumstances was bestowed upon him. He was a
brave soldier, a true and generous friend, and well
beloved by his fellow soldiers and friends at home.
On the tenth of the same month another brave
young man from that company — John McCroskey
— was consigned to a resting place beside his com-
On the tenth of December the army marched
to Munfordsville or Green River, Camp Wood.
Here the army remained until February 15th,
1862, when, a suflScient force having coU-ected, it
moved against Bowling Green, occupied by Gen-
eral Buckner. A flank movement by General
228 ^ AT NASHVILLE.
Mitcliell compelled the enemy to fall back to Nash-
ville, and our forces moved forward to that point.
The capture of Fort Donelson by our forces, led
to the evacuation of Nashville by the rebels, and
our army took quiet possession. While encamped
south of that city, the 39th regiment picketed
that part of the country lying between Nolens-
ville and the Franklin pike, and, on the 15th of
March, company C had the honor of welcoming
within the Federal lines that bold and sterling
Tennessee patriot, W. G. Brow^nlow. Upon
alighting from his vehicle, he waved his hat,
raised his eyes towards heaven and shouted
" Glory to God ! once more inside the Union
On arriving at Nashville, some were entirely
bare-footed, having traveled in that condition
many weary miles over the rough stone pike, their
feet blistered and bleeding. But their hardships
were borne with heroic fortitude, and that wise
philosophy which quietly submits to ills that can-
not be remedied. They consoled themselves with
allusions to the privations of the Revolutionary
fathers, and seemed proud to be called upon to
emulate their courage and fortitude. But supplies
On the 16th of March, 1862, the army at Nash-
ville, (General Buell's,) set out on the march for
the south-west. On Saturday, April 5th, Major
BATTLE OF SHILOH, 229
General McCook's Division, in which was the
39th regiment, encamped twenty-seven miles from
Savannah, Tennessee, to prepare rations. Beeves
were slaughtered, and the soldiers were congratu-
lating themselves on the prospect of fresh beef
and a day's rest, but the morning's sun brought
to their' ears the booming of cannon, and the word
that General Grant's army had been attacked and
a terrible battle was in progress. A forced march
was now ordered to reinforce Gj-ant, Taking
three day's rations, the soldiers threw away
blankets and knapsacks, and moved forward rap-
idly. As they drew nearer, the cannonading
grew more distinct and furious. At midnight,
worn out and exhausted, they reached Savannah,
seven miles from Pittsburg Landing — the scene
of the terrific contest. No boats being ready, the
soldiers threw themselves down in the streets. A
pelting hail-storm made sleep impossible.
In the morning the roaring of cannon told them
that the contest on the battle-Held was renewed,
even more fiercely than on the day previous. A
boat transferred their brigade, consisting of the
32d and 39th Indiana, and 15th and 49th Ohio to
the scene of conflict, arriving about 11 o'clock a.
m. The fighting was then nearly two miles from
Standing upon the boat's deck they listened to
the noise of the battle, which was one continual
230 BATTLE OF SHILOH.
roar of cannon and rattle of musketry. They saw
behind the hill a large force of cowardly strag-
glers, who had fled, unharmed, from the front, and
hundreds of the wounded and dying borne back
from the field. They marched immediately to the
battle-ground, where they were ordered to lie
down as reserves, which they did for half an hour,
while the shock of the raging battle seemed to
shake the very earth upon which they lay. They
then marched to the front and opened their part
of the light amid one incessant peal of musketry.
Company C fought bravely for two hours and a
half, when the sight of the retreating enemy
brought enthusiastic cheers from our army.
The Jay Torch-Light of April 24th, speaking
of this company said :
" By letter from Lieutenant Clark, we learn the part borne by
the Jay County boys in the great battle of Shiloh. They were in
the thickest of the fight for two and one-half hours, and, during
that time, the rebels commenced their retreat. They fought
bravely and well, though it was the first battle they had ever
engaged in. It was a trying time to their nerve and courage.
For nearly two daj^s the battle had raged most furiously, and,
more than half that time the rebels had driven our men. The
boys heard the cannonading from the opening roar and had
seen hundreds of the wounded and dying borne from the field.
In these circumstances they were called into the field and placed
in the centre. It was like marching into the jaws of death.
But they went forward boldJy and fought well. All honor to
them. Jay County is proud of her soldiers."
STEPHEN J. BAILEY. 231
Captain Wilson being at home on the recruit-
ing service, tlie company was commanded by
Lieutenants J. G. Cowell and C. H. Clark. The
casualties in company C were as follows : Stephen
J. Bailey, mortally wounded in the thigh, James
Q. Odle, mortally wounded in the arm, Edwin
Hoover, wounded in left arm, Penbroke S. Bodle,
slightly in the neck, J. N. Stratton, slightly in
When Bailey was being carried from the field,
he said to Lieutenant Clark, " Tell my mother I
died like a man, fighting for my country." At
that moment the cheers of our troops were heard,
and he inquired what it meant. Upon being told
that the rebels were running, he said, "Then I die
in peace." He was carried from the field, placed
upon a boat, and taken to Mound City Hospital,
Illinois, where he died, April lYth, 1863. He was
a very intelligent young man, interesting in con-
versation, quiet and industrious. He was the son of
Mrs. Mary Bailey, of Camden, and was raised a
Quaker. He was the Jirst soldier from Jay Cott/n-
ty to yield up his life to rebel bullets, and was wor-
thy of this honorable niche in the history of the
James Q. Odle died at the residence of his
brother, at Windsor, Randolph County, Indiana,
June 18th, 1862. His remains were interred at
232 JAMES HATHAWAy.
Many soldiers contracted diseases from expo-
sure by encamping on the Held after the heat and
excitement of that battle. Among them was Mr.
James Hathaway, who died Ma}^ 16th, 1862, at
Jefferson Barracks, Missouri. He was forty-eight
years of age when he volunteered in his country's
service, leaving a large famil}'. He was a Chris-
tian, in every sense of the term. While he served
God faithfully, he was true to his country. lie
was the patriarch and moral monitor of the com-
pany. Vice, in many of its members, he would
reprove in a manner that always elicited from the
reproved warm love and respect, and they all
sincerel}^ mourned his death. From his position
as musician, he was not required to go into battle,
but, laying aside the fife at Pittsburg Landing, he
went with the comany into the battle, unarmed,
but seizing the first deserted musket, bravely
fought until the battle was over. His memory
will be cherished as one of Jay County's noblest
The army encamped on the battle-field for sev-
eral days, then marched against Corinth. At
Bridge Creek, company C participated in a severe
fight, but received no injury.
They remained near Corinth until about the
middle of June, when they marched southward
to Huntsville, Alabama, arriving there July 4th.
Here the 39th were ordered to Bridgeport, Ala-
BUELL S KETREAT.
bama, to guard the crossing of the Tennessee
liiver, which they did until August 20th, when
they joined the forces collecting at Battle Creek
for an advance upon Chattanooga. But, when
within a few miles of the place, an order, surpris-
ing every soldier, was given for them to return.
Then commenced the famous " Buell's retreat,"
or race with General Bragg, across Tennessee and
Kentucky, which though honorable to the soldiers,
was ver}'^ disgraceful to their commander.
In this fatiguing march the soldiers were most
of the time destitute of rations, and had to exist
upon fruit, green corn and meat supplied by for-
aging parties. As the corn became hard they
parted their canteens and, punching them full of
holes, made graters, from which, with commenda-
ble perseverance, they manufactured sufficient
corn meal to keep off actual want, yet many nights
they had to lie down, not only tired, but very
The appearance of the army on reaching Louis-
ville clearly indicated the hard marching and pri-
vations to which it had been subjected. Tarrying
long enough to replenish their exhausted ward-
robe, on the 1st day of October, 1862, they
again started on the long, forward march to re-
deem the territory which incompetency, or
half-hearted loyalty had given to the rebel-
The marching was as severe in this advance as
it had been in the retreat. The weather was very
hot, the earth parched, and water scarce. The
men often marched until- midnijiht, and would
then have to walk one or two miles for water.
Swine were driven from the wallow and the water
used to make coffee and quench thirst, and, on
one occasion, even drinking water from a hole in
which lay dead horses, mules and dogs ! and, at
other times, pushing back a green scum, an inch
in thickness, to till their canteens. Amid these
trying circumstances, an indomitable spirit of pat-
riotism prevailed and few complaints were uttered.
At Nasihville, General Rosecrans succeeded to
the command, in the place of Buell, removed,
who was hailed with enthusiastic delight by the
Army of the Cumberland.
General Bragg had halted in his precipitate
retreat, and fortified Murfreesboro, and the 39th
being encamped some distance in front of Nash-
ville, were much of the time skirmishing with
scouting parties of the enemy.
On the 25th of December General Rosecrans
ordered an attack upon the rebels, which was the
preliminary of the great battle of Stone River.
On the night of the 29th, the army encamped upon
the open field before the enemy. On the 30th an
engagement with part of the line took place, and
General McCook's Division, in which was the
BATTLE OF STONE EIVER. 235
39th, was moved up as a reserve, and, in the eve-
ning, was placed upon the right, on picket.
Just at daylight, next morning, the enemy, sev-
eral lines deep, attacked the 39th, driving them
back in confusion, killing and capturing many.
The loss of company C was as follows : John
Hilton, mortally wounded, Eugene Plumb, mor-
tally wounded, Cyrus Stanley, severely wounded,
G-. H. Bassett, severely wounded in groin, John
McClelland, wounded in neck, and forty prisoners,
as indicated in the list of members.
On JSTew Year's, 1864, these prisoners were put
on board the cars at Murfreesboro and started
toward Richmond, where they arrived in two
weeks, having suifered severely on the route, for
want of food. They were first confined in a
tobacco warehouse, and afterward in Libby Prison.
Their stomachs rebelled against the meagre, un-
savory prison rations. A small loaf of bread, some
soup and bad beef, was, at first, an allowance for
each man, daily, but, before they left, this supply
was divided between six men.
On the 28th of January, 1863, the unwoundod
privates of company C, with many others, marched
through the city to the canal. While cross-
ing this the bridge gave way and precipitated
them twenty feet, into water fifteen feet deep.
The canal Wiis walled with stone, and the men
could not get out without assistance, but the guard
236 CYKU8 STANLEY.
and citizens viewed the spectacle witli folded
arms. By the aid of comrades in tlie rear they
escaped. In this half drowned condition they were
placed upon filthy stock cars and pent to City
Point, Virginia, and thence to Annapolis. Their
joy at being once more under the " Stars and
Stripes" found vent in hearty cheers. Their warm
welcome home made them forget for a season
their recent hardships.
During the battle, Cyrus Stanley was struck
near the back-bone, by a musket ball, whicli en-
tered his right kidney. While Daniel Walter
was helping him off the field, Stanley's hat was
shot off, and two balls passed through Walter's
clothes. But they were both captured. With his
wound undressed and bleeding, on platform cais,
without covering, Stanley was taken to Chattanoo-
ga, having been three days and nights without
one morsel of food ! Six rebel surgeons examined
his wound and pronounced it latal. But his quiet
spirit and courageous determination saved him
from a southern grave.
On the 5th of March, 1863, he and thirteen oth
ers were taken to Knoxville, and thence (March
8th) to Libby Prison — that dungeon whose men-
tion brings to mind all that is horrible and revolt-
ing in human suffering. All this time Stanley
had not recovered sufticiently to walk, even upon
crutches. He was confined in a room with near-
BATTLE OF DECHARD FORD. 237
ly three hundred others. Their scanty daily al- .
lowance was of the most repulsive kind, and some
died in the room of actual starvation. On the
18th of March he was taken to Washington City,
where he wrote to his friends in Jay. The letter
was like a voice from the dead, for they had sup-
posed his wound had long since proved fatal. He
was taken to Davis' Island, Kew York, on the
5th of May, and in one month was able to start
home. He is now County Recorder. Capt. J.
G. Crowell and Lieut. G. T. Winters were not ex-
changed for some time aftef this. A mere frag-
ment of the company could be rallied on the bat-
tle-field on that New Tear's day. Early in May,
the paroled members of company C having been
exchanged, rejoined the regiment at Nashville,
where they found their comrades had been
mounted and armed with the Spencer rifle. They
have since been designated as the 8th Indiana
Mounted Infantry. At Tullahoma the regiment
had the post of danger, and distinguished itself
whenever engaged. At Dechard Ford, two miles
south of Winchester, company C made a gallant
charge and was highly complimented. Lieut.
Winters was wounded in the foot, Luther J. Ba-
ker in the leg, L. W. Lemasters severely in the
breast, and eleven horses killed. In the sanguin-
ary struggle at Chickamauga, the 39th took an
honorable part and came out unscathed. Soon
238 BATTLES OF COMPANY C.
after this, many of these veterans re-enlisted, re-
ceiv^liig throe hundred and four dollars additional
bounty. On the 20th of February, 1864, the
regiment distinguished itself by a noted reeon-
noissance at Tunnell Hill, Buzzard Roost and
Dalton, and remained in the immediate front un-
til March 25th, when the whole regiment was
furlouorhed and came home. The war-worn vet-
erans were warml}^ welcomed by the citizens of
Indianapolis, and hastened home to enjoy the
company of friends and relatives, from whom they
had so long been absent. In a few days compa-
ny B, 34:th Indiana regiment, came home, also on
veteran furlough, and the two companies were
publicly welcomed by large parties and fine sup-
pers at Portland, Camden and College Corner.
At the expiration of their furlough, the regiment
re-assembled at Indianapolis, and. May 11th, left
for Nashville to renew their conflicts with traitors.
Early in July they were ordered to Marietta,
where they have lately distinguished themselves
in a daring and effectual raid. This regiment has
participated in the following battles :
BRIDGE CKEEK, MISSISSIPPI.
DRY RIDGE, KENTUCKY.
STONE RIVER, TENNESSEE, SEVEN DAYS
MIDDLETON, TENNESSEE, (tWICE.)
LIBERTY GAP, TENNESSEE.
COMPANY C. 239
DECHARDS' FORD, TENNESSEE.
DAVIs' CROSS ROADS, GEORGIA.
CHICKAMAUGA, GEORGIA, TWO DATS.
TUNNELL HILL, GEORGIA.
NICK o'jACK GAP, GEORGIA.
STONY FACE POINT, GEORGIA.
In all of these company C have borne an hon-
orable part, reflecting credit upon themselves and
the county they represent, and with heroic deeds
inscribing an imperishable record upon the annals
of their country.
COMPANY C, THIRTY-NINTH REGIMENT INDIANA
[Those marked * re-enlisted, and those marked t are discharged. The J
denotes those captured at Stone River.]
Captain Stephen L. "Wilson, resigned July 18tli, 1863.
First Lieutenant John Q. Lewis, resigned March 10th, 1863.
Second Lieutenant Curtis H. Clark, promoted first lieutenant.
Resigned October 16th, 1863.
[Promotions among non-commissioned officers and privates were no^
reported to the author.]
Orderly, J. G. Crowell, promoted 1st lieutenant, then captain.:):
R. G. Jackson, died December 6th, 1861.
J. G. Wagner, died June 10th, 1863.
I. N. Stratton, promoted second lieutenant.
Andrew Jackson,* promoted to orderly.
John McClellan, J. M. Bromagem,*^:
Thomas Bosworth, Calvin Burdg,*
Solomon Lupton *|:
G. T. Winters, promoted to
George Clark * promoted to
Jolin Hanna, died December James Hathaway, died May
15th, 1862. 16th, 1862.
Calvin S. Adams,
W. G. Adams,f
H. H. Antles.t
George R. Ashley,*
S. J. Bailey, died at Mound
City, 111., April 1st, 1862.
L. J. Baker,*t
G. H. Bassett,* wounded at
Joseph Bisel, died Septem-
ber 14th, 1862,
W. H. Blowers,* (Adams Co.)
J. L. Bockoven,*!
P. S. Bodle,* wounded at
Anthony Brown,* :]:
William Clawson,* t
H. D. Clevenger, died June
Christian Long,* ^
L. A. Long,:):
A. A. Mason,*
J. S. Maxwell,*^
John McCroskey, died Dec.
J. W. Miller,
W. H. Moore,t
John Nixon, I
A. J. Nuckles,
J. Q. Odle, mortally wounded
at Shiloh, died June 18th,
W. J. Ralph,*
F. M. Reed,
M. L. Collett * t
G. W. Cookerly,
J. A. Cummins,:|:
J. H. Darby, died June 14th,
J. A. Eiclier,*
E. R. Fetters,
B. F. Freeman,*!
G. W. Hardy ,*t
John Hilton, wounded mor-
tally at Stone River, and
died Jan. 25th, 18G3,
Samuel Hilton, *t
J. W. Hoke,*
G. H. Jackson,*
B. B. Jenkins,
L. W. Lemasters,f
A. G. Lewis,*
JeflPerson Sewell,* (Adams Co.)
S. W. Shannon,* t
J. A. Shewalter,*:]:
J. W. Shewalter,i
D. T. Skinner, promoted to
captain 7th Ind. Cavalry,
Samuel Sloan, f
Cyrus Stanley,! J
J. W. Swallow, died January
D. T. Taylor,*
J. N. Vance, died Jan. 13, 1863.
W. C. Votaw,*
Daniel Walter,* :[:
M. W. Wagner,*
D. O. Whipple,t
J. B. Worden,
C. E. Yost,
D. S. Arnold,
W. S. Baldwin,
W. R. Dutcher, died April
A. Fetters, died Aug. 3, 1863,
J. B. Marquis,
G. W. Miller,
242 COMPANY C.
D. Fetters, E. Wilkerson,
W. H. Force, Ellis Wilder, died May 12, 1864.
I. Garringer, William Wilkerson,
S. Hoke, Nathan B. Winters.
The following were nine-months' drafted or substitute
recruits, who joined this company — all now discharged except
one. They were drafted October 6th, 1862 :
James Bales, Levi Mason,:):
W. Bridgford,t James Pitt,
J. W. Bartmes,:!: volunteered, James Patterson,
James Cunningham,^ Eugene Plumb, wounded mor-
William Ernest,^ - tally at Stone River, died
Benjamin Heston, • Jan. 1 9th, 1863,
P. C. Jones,t G. W. Swhier,
A. J. Landis, D. Theurer.
Drafted Recruits , 14
Resigned and Discharged 27
The liistor}'^ of company C lias been given at
length for several reasons. It was the first com-
pany to go from the county, and has been longest
in the service. Many things, also, connected with
its history can be related of all other Jay Coimty
companies ; but having been given, need not be
During the latter part of August, 1861, James
W. Campbell and Nimrod Headington recruited
a company for the three years service. An elec-
COMPANY B. 243
tion resulted in the choice of Mr. Campbell as
Captain ; Mr. Headington, First Lieutenant, and
Benjamin G. Shinu, Second Lieutenant. On the
1st of September the ladies of Portland gave a
farewell supper to the company, and on the fol-
lowing morning they departed for camp at Ander-
son, Indiana, where they became company B in
the 34th regiment. They were mustered into the
United States service September 21st. Asberry
Steele, of Grant County, was their first Colonel.
COMPANY B, THIRTY-FOURTH REGIMENT OF
Captain, James W. Campbell.
" Nimrod Headington — first lieutenant and captain,
First Lieutenant, David A. Harter.
Second Lieutenant, Benjamin G. Shinn — resigned Nov., 1861.
" " David D. Hastie— promoted Nov., 1861 ;
resigned Dec. 25th, 1862.
" " Abraham M. Templer — promoted captain.
" " Thomas Helm.
John Bromagem, Benjamin F. Harter.
Stephen Straley, wounded at Warner Cox, died at Memphis,
Champion Hill, Tenn., August 6, 1862.
George W. Stowell, James P. Gibson,
Enoch H. Harker, Anthony W. Shey,
JohnHammitt, James A. Crisler.
Joseph P. Bishop,
George O. Carle.
Perry L. Burk,
David Crisler, wounded at
George W. Denney, wounded
at Champion Hill,
Henry W. Duckett,
Joseph J. Glover,
Edward B. Hawley,
William M. Hutzler,
Wesley S. IliflP,
John W. Lethe,
Charles O. Lindsay,
William K. Louk, wounded
at Champion Hill,
John R. May,
John Morily, wounded at Fort
Simon P. Marrow,
Elias K. Maddox,
Michael T. Paxson,
John H. F. Pugh, wounded
at Champion Hill,
John L. Reeves,
William S. Reeves,
George W. Stoner,
William W. Swallow,
Isaac I. Swallow,
John F. Stowe,
John M. Thomas,
JeflFerson J. Williams.
Gabriel F. Barnes— Jan. 24th, 1862.
Sergeant Sylvester Hiatt— March 28th, 1862.
Corporal John F. Connett— Feb. 9th, 1863.
Dallas D. Chapmar — killed at Champion Hill.
Matthew Dodds— Feb. 21st, 1862.
John J. Swaney — killed at Champion Hill.
George L. Adair.
COMPANY B. 245
Bailiflf W. Stowell — mortally wounded at Port Gibson ; died
May 28tb, 1863.
Finley Blair— Feb. 13tb, 186?.
William H. H. Bailey — mortally wounded at Cbampion Hill.
John Cline— Feb. 2Gth, 1802.
Levi Clean— May 6th, 1862.
Warner Cox— Aug. 6th, 1862.
Oliver P. Karnes.
John J. Haivland— Feb. 24th, 1862.
Levi P. Morrow— May 3d, 1862.
Joseph Perry — killed at Champion Hill.
Jacob B. Spade— March 8th, 1862.
Ira Somers— Feb. 10th, 1862.
John S. Stoner— Jan. 24th, 1862.
Henry Crabtree and Clinton DeardoiF, on account of ill health.
Jno. Geiger, on account of wound received at Champion Hill.
James P. Gibson, Isaac Vanhorn,
James M. Hoover, John L. Walker,
James J. Hite, Lewis Crisler,
Edward B. Keagel, Sergeant Isaac Hanna,
William A. Latham, Bennett Goodson,
Joshua Nichols, Sergeant Jacob T. Wells.
Thos. Airly, to Invalid Corps, for wounds at Champion Hill.
Patrick Doyle, " " " " "
Morris G. Ward, to Non-commissioned Staff.
Allen Jaqua was a member of regimental band, 84th Regt.
Whole number 126
Transferred, Resigned and Discharged 19
246 COMPANY B.
On the 21st of October they went to Camp Jo.
Holt, at Indianapulis ; thence, November 16th, to
New Haven, Kentucky; remained thereuntil the
28th of December, when they moved to Camp
Wickliffe. In February, 1862, they marched to
the mouth of Salt Hiver, in the same State. The
company had been very healthy until near the
close of the year 1861, when, in about one
month, eight of its members died, most of them
of pneumonia. Their health began to improve
with their removal from Camp AVickliife. At the
mouth of Salt River the ret^iment embarked on
board a steamboat for Point Commerce, on the
Mississippi Kiver, in the State of Missouri. They
marched across the country from this place by the
way of Benton to New Madrid. The company
took part in the siege of that town, and while so
engaged they assisted in hauling a heavy cannon
by hand to Biddle Point, a distance of fifteen
miles, through swamps, and in the night. With
this guu four of the rebel gunboats were driven
off, one of which was disabled. After the capture
of New Madrid, the company remained at that
place until the 15th of June, 1862, when the 34tli
regiment was ordered on board transports and
proceeded to Memphis, Tenn. Remaining there
but a short time, the_y accompanied Col. Graham
N. Fitch in his expedition up the White River.
This company participated in the tight at Grand
COMPANY B. 247
Prairie; thence returning to Helena, Arkansas,
where the regiment remained from August 1st,
1862, until April 12th, 1863, moving out occasion-
ally on the roads leading from that place to Little
Rock, Clarendon and D avail's Bluff, to watch the
movements of the enemy. The regiment also
made two other excursions up White Eiver, under
Gen. Willis A. Gorman. On the 12th of April,
1863, the regiment was placed on board trans-
ports, with orders to report to Gen. Grant at
Young's Point, Louisiana. Arriving there on
16th of April, the troops marched to Grand Gulf,
or Perkins' Plantation, a distance of iifty miles,
across a country interspersed with br^ad and deep
bayous and swamps, which were bridged by the
soldiers before they could be crossed.
Before narrating the stirring events that come
next in chronological order, it is proper to state
that Col. Steele having resigned, Lieut. Col. (now
General) Cameron became Colonel. Prior to this
Lieut. Headington had been detailed to command
company K, of the same regiment ; but Captain
Campbell having been appointed Lieutenant Col-
onel of the 1st Arkansas colored regiment, he be-
came Captain of company B. The regiment was
assigned to the 13th Army Corps, 12th Division,
commanded by Gen. A. P. Hovey.
The 30th day of April was spent in transporting
the troops across the river, preparing rations, and
248 BATTLE OF PORT GIBSON.
makino; other arrangements fur a march. Jnst at
dark the arm}^ comtiienced their Hue of march, in
the direction of Port Gibson. After marching all
night the advance guard fell in with the enemy's
pickets about five o'clock in the morning, some
four miles from Port Gibson. At daybreak a
halt was ordered, and the men were allowed fif-
teen minutes to take some refreshments. AVhile
the men were yet eating, the enemy opened fire
upon them with artillery. The troops were im-
mediately ordered to march to the summit of a
steep hill, where they were formed in line of bat-
tle and moved steadily forward.
The engagement now became general along the
whole line. Our army, however, marched steadily
through a dense cane-brake, some four hundred
yards, and, on emerging from this thicket, one of
the enemy's batteries was discovered only about
two hundred yards distant, which was belching
forth grape and canister at a furious rate.
A charge was ordered, and, in a short time, the
battery was captured, together with two wagons
loaded with ammunition, and about three hundred
The 34tli regiment was in the advance in this
charge, and six men in cf>mpany B were wounded,
one of whom, Bailiff W. Stowell, died of his
The battle continued through the whole day
BATTLE OF CHAMPION HILLS. 24:9
the enemy slowly but steadily falling back. At
night our troops slept upon their arras, on the
battle-field. The morning of the 2d of May re-
vealed the fact that the enemy had fled during the
night, and the Federal army occupied Port Gib-
son, early in the day.
On the 3d of May the army moved toward
Jackson, Mississij^pi, and, after taking that place,
started in the direction of Yicksburg.
On the 16th of May the battle of Champion
Hills was fought. General Hovey's Division
bore the brunt of the fight. Company B, of the
34th regiment, lost in killed and wounded,
Captain Headington, two days after the battle
writes : " We fought another hard battle on the
16th, in v/liich many of our brave boys fell. In
my company first fell, by my side, William H. H.
Bailey, mortally wounded, next Staley, then Chap-
man on my right fell, mortally wounded, while
defending the colors. Then, on my left, Perry
was killed, then fell Swaney, mortally wounded,
then Geiger, wounded in the leg, then Doyle,
wounded in the shoulder^ Airley, wounded in the
thigh, Pugh, wounded in the back, Daniel Crisler,
in the arm, George Denney, in the hand, William
Louk, in the hand, D. Shinn, in the wrist, James
Crislee, in the shoulder, Houk, in the hand. Ham-
mitt in the leg — seventeen in all. Never did
250 AT NEW ORLEANS.
bojs light braver than did company B. Lieuten-
ant Colonel Swain is wounded in the lungs, I
fear mortally. Our regiment killed and captured
one entire Alabama regiment. We made it so
hot for them that the colonel rode up, threw up
his hat and cried for mercy, saying that he sur-
rendered his whole command."
The enemy was completely routed and driven
from the held, leaving their dead and wounded.
The 16th and part of the 1 8th were spent in bury-
ing the dead.
On the morning of the 19th, the army moved
in the direction of Vicksburg, and, on the 20th,
at early dawn, came in sight of the doomed city.
Then commenced the memorable seige of that
town, which resulted in its surrender, with the en-
tire army, under G-eneral Peraberton, on the 4th
of July, 1863.
This company was engaged in this siege from
the commencement to its close, shooting during
the day, and digging in the trenches during the
night, yet not one of them was injured by the
shots of the enemy during the whole time.
On the 5th of July the regiment started for Jack-
son, Mississippi, under General Sherman, when
the rebel General Johnston was driven from that
place, and man}- miles of railroad destroyed.
Early in August the regiment went to Natches,
and thence to New Orleans, where they ar-
ON FURLOUGH. 251
rived on the 15th of that month. Remaining
about a month, they were ordered to Brashier
City. From there they accompanied Banks' expe-
dition to Teche Bayou, and were engaged for
two months, without tents, in scouting through
the country, occasionally encountering small
bodies of rebels, which were uniformly captured
or put to flight. They came, by a forced march,
to the assistance of General Burbridge, at the bat-
tle of Carrion Crow, in time to save him from
defeat. The regiment arrived at New Iberia,
Louisiana, on the 10th of December, and, on the
14th of that month, most of the men re-enlisted,
including forty-four of company B.
The regiment returned to New Orleans on the
23d day of December. On the 29th, they em-
barked on board a steam-ship for Matagorda Pe-
ninsula, Texas. After remaining there two
months the regiment returned to New Orleans on
the 23d of February, 1864, where they remained
until the 20th of March, when the re-enlisted men
were farloughed for thirty days. They started
for their homes immediately, arriving at Indian-
apolis on the 29th, and, on the 1st of April, were
given a grand reception by the Governor and
other dignitaries of the State and city of Indian-
On the morning of the 3d of April the veterans
belonging to Jay County received the greetings
252 COMPANY E.
of their friends at home, after an absence of two
years and seven months.
After spending a month among their friends
they again returned to their field of service. Ar-
riving at Indianapolis on the 2d of May, 1864,
they remained one week at Gamp Carrington and
the 19th of May found them again at New Orleans,
where they still remain.
Before the regiment left Indianapolis, Captain
Headington was promoted to Major of the 3ith
This company, throughout the varied and ardu-
ous services in which they have been engaged,
have, on all occasions, acquitted themselves with
distinguished honor, and, in the future, they will
not be found wanting in bravery, patient endur-
ance and devotion to their country's cause in every
trial to which the fortunes of war may subject
LIST OF MEMBERS, COMPANY E, EIGHTY-NINTH
Captain, Joseph R Winters.
First Lieutenant, Royal Denney, resigned Dec. 6th, 1863.
Second Lieutenant, Levi James, resigned Jan. 15th, 1863.
Frederick "W. White, promoted first lieutenant Jan. 16, 1863.
Joseph L. Hall, promoted to first sergeant.
Aaron W. Wright, promoted second lieutenant Jan. 16, 1863
John H. Jackson.
COMPANY E. 25S
'William S. Peterson, promoted to fourth sergeant.
\dam Loy, promoted to fifth sergeant.
Stephen A. Stratton, died in Fort Pickering Aug. 9th, 1863.
Charles T. O'Harra, David W.*Adams,
Perry Arbaugh, Elijali Broughman.
Jonathan Cloud, musician, wounded at Munfordsville, Ky.,
Sept. 14th, 1862.
John Ogden, musician. Philo P. Way, wagoner.
[The t denotes those discharged.]
David S. Arnold,f William Henry,
Daniel Armantrout,f Silas Isenhart, died July 5th,
John Armantrout, 1863,
John C. Athy, killed at Yel- John D. Jetter,
low Bayou, Louisiana, Joseph Jackson,
May 18th, 1864, Samuel W. Jones, died Oct.,
George W. Arbaugh, pro- 1863,
moted corporal, Jesse James, died May, 1863,
William T. Adams, at Fort Pickering,
David Boyles, died in hospi- Francis M. Kelley,
tal at St. Louis, Jasper N. Loofbourrow,
Daniel Broughman, died Dec. Henry Landers,f
8th, 1862, at camp near Chester Lewis,
Memphis, Christopher Loper,f
George M. Brewington, Robert W. McFarland, died at
John C. Beard, Fort Pickering, July 20th,
Hallot Bryan, died at hospi- 1863,
tal, Memphis, William H. Mason,f
Abraham Bartmes, Charles A. Morehous,
George W. Beason, killed at Mahlon Morrical,.
Pleasant Hill, Louisiana, George W. Meek, killed May
April 9th, 1864, 7th, 1864, at Lamore, La.
John Bonecutter, Ebenezer Miller.
Cornelius Corwiu, promoted
Peter M. Cook,t
John A. Conkle,
Lafayette Evelsizor, died in
George W. Glassford,f
Joseph €k^ay, killed at Yel-
low Bayou, Louisiana,
May 18th, 1864,
Lewis H. Houser,
William R. Haffner,
Benjamin J. Hudson, died in
hospital, Memphis, Aug.
George Henry, wounded and
left in hands of rebels
at Pleasant Hill, April
John Hanlin, promoted to
Henry C. Powers,
Frederick Premer, died in hos-
pital at Memphis, March
John G. Ross,
William K. Sanders, transfer-
red to marine fleet,
Lonton Scott, f
George W. Swihart,
William IL Stratton, died at
Fort Pickering, March 1st,
Timothy L. Stratton,
Franklin Snyder, promoted to
William Sigler, killed at Yel-
low Bayou, May 18, 1&64,
Jeremiah Tinkle, died at home,
Robert Young, died at Fort
Pickering, March 5, 1863.
William F. Metzner,
J In Y.Miller,
William S. Kelley,
Whole number 100
Resigned, Transferred and Discharged 14
Reported as Deserters, not included above 4
Company E was recruited in August, 1862, and,
on the 18th of that month, left Jay for camp,
having first accepted a bountiful farewell supper
from the ladies. The next day they reached camp
at "Wabash, Indiana, Colonel John U. Pettit, com-
mandant, where the following officers were unan-
imously elected : Captain, Joseph P. Winters,
First Lieutenant, Royal Denney, Second Lieuten-
ant, Levi James.
On the 26th they went to Indianapolis, where
they received arms, uniforms, one month's wages,
and twenty-five dollars of their bounty. They
arrived in Louisville August 31st, Thus, in about
twenty days, this full company had been recruited,
armed, equipped and had arrived in Dixie, ready
for active service which they were soon called up-
on to perform.
They reached Munfordsville, Kentucky, Sep-
tember 3d, where they were stationed to guard
the railroad bridge across Green river.
There were two small forts here, one above, the
other below the bridge, between which a line of
breastworks had been commenced, and negroes
were now at work upon them. The number of
troops at this point now was twenty-five hundred.
On the night of the 13th of September the troops
were called out and stationed around the works.
About daylight they were attacked by eight
thousand rebels, under Chalmers, when they were
driven within their fortifications. The rebels then
charged that part of the fort where the 89th regi-
ment was stationed, but were driven back with
heavy loss. After making another similarly un-
successful attempt upon another part of the forti-
fications, the enemy withdrew, and, having ob-
tained permission, spent the remainder of the day
burying their dead and caring for the wounded.
Our loss in killed and wounded was about forty,
while that of the enemy was seven hundred.
Company E lost one man, Jonathan Cloud,
seriously wounded. The next day our men re-
ceived a reinforcement of two regiments and six
pieces of artillery.
Chalmer's force proved to be only the advance
of Bragg's great army, a part of which completely
surrounded our small force, planting artillery on
every hill lying around the fortifications. It was
a useless waste of life to contend longer, and, on
the morning of the lYth of September, the entire
Federal force surrendered. It is notorious that
General Buell, being near by with his immense
army, might easily have turned this disaster into
a victory, but he failed to do it. These prisoners
were immediately paroled and sent toward Buell's
army. They went iirst to Bowling Green and
thence to the Ohio river, at Brandenbnrg, from
which place they came to Jeffersonville. Dm-ing
their march to the river they suffered much ;
hard marching and exposure had made many
sick, and they had to live upon the country
through which they were passing. At Indian-
apolis they were fourloughed for twenty days,
and all returned, home, having been in the service
less than six weeks. While at home, Lieutenant
Denney was elected County Treasurer, to succeed.
J. P. Winters, who held that office when he en-
tered the army.
On the 27th of October they returned to parole
camp, at Indianapolis, where, on the 17th of
]^ovember, just two months after their surrender.
Governor Morton, in a speech, informed them
that they had been exchanged.
On the 4th of December they took the cars for
Cairo, Illinois, where they proceeded aboard the
Ohio Belle, bound for Memphis, where they ar-
rived December 8th, and camped one mile south-
east of the city. They performed picket duty
around the city until near the close of the month,
when they were stationed in Fort Pickering, on the
river just below the city, where they remained
nearly one year — until October 18th, 1863. This
long period of the history of this company, though
258 Sherman's raid.
checkered with many interesting incidents, such as
visits from friends, journeys up and down the river
as guards, etc., may, nevertheless, be characterized
as very dull and monotonous.
On the Yth of April, 1863, Capt. J. P. Winters
was honored with the appointment from Gen.
Yeatch of Provost Marshal of Fort Pickering,
which position he HUed with much credit during
his stay at the fort. During this absence of the
Captain the company was commanded by Lieut.
There was great joy in company E when, Octo-
ber 18th, they were removed from the Fort to a
beautiful camping ground on Poplar street, east
of Memphis, and again assigned to picket duty
around the city. Here the boys declare the pleas-
antest part of their soldier-life was spent. The
duty was light ; but above all the pure air and ex-
ercise they now enjoyed, so in contrast with their
long confinement in the Fort, brought back health
and buoyancy- of spirits to the men. But a soldier's
comfort and ease is always of short duration.
While here they participated in a victorious en-
gagement against Gen. Forrest, at Lafayette, and
pursued him to Cold Water, Miss., returning to
Memphis New Year's, 1864. January 28th they
left their beautiful camping ground, and boarded
a steamer, in company with a small fleet starting
to Yicksburg, where they arrived on the 30th
RED RIVER EXPEDITION. 259
instant. In February they accompanied the fa-
mous " Sherman raid " throuajh Mississippi, in
which the railroads centering at Jackson and Can-
ton were effectually destroyed. They reached
Vicksburg again March 4th, having been absent
about one month, during which they had traveled
three hundred miles. In this expedition, so se-
verely danaging to the rebel cause as to give last-
ing honor to the men who participated in it, the
soldiers saw some very hard times. The boys of
company E were unused to marching; their knap-
sacks were heavy ; they seldom drew more than,
half rations, often not so much, and for two or
three days, in the eastern part of the State, lived
mostly upon parched corn. Nevertheless, they
had pleasant weather and good roads, plenty of
water and the privilege of confiscating whatever
they found in the country fit to eat, and company
E knew as well how to use this privilege as any
company in the expedition.
Six days after their return they set out — under
command of Gen, A. J, Smith — upon an expedi-
tion up Red River. On their way they halted at
Semmesport, marched across the country, and af-
ter a hard fight captured Fort De Russey and
three hundred prisoners, March 14th, On the
21st of the same month they M'"ere sent to Pine
Hill, La., twenty miles from Alexandria, where
they captured three hundred prisoners, four pieces
260 BATTLE OF PLEASANT HILL,
of artillery, etc. They then returned to Red
River, went on up to Pleasant Hill, where they
participated in a severe battle on the 8th and
9th of April, 1864, under Gen. Banks. On the
first day our forces were repulsed, but on the
second day Gen. Smith checked the rebels and
drove them back. The 89tli made a charge, cap-
turing one hundred prisoners. The loss of the
regiment was six killed and forty-nine wounded —
company E one killed and Jive wounded. From
this place, very strangely, a retreat was ordered
by Gen. Banks. Of this movement Capt. Winters
wrote in his diary as follows :
' ' "Why General Banks ordered a retreat is a mystery to all.
Here was the battle-field covered with the dead and wounded
rebels, neither of them taken care of. Here were thousands
of small arms left on the field, sufficient to arm several thousand
men, eleven pieces of artillery dismounted or disabled. This
had been done by our men, but we must leave all for the
rebels to gather up again. Our own dead were not even buried.
A thousand groans and ten thousand curses were hurled
The army fell back to Grand Ecore and then to
Alexandria, skirmishing almost constantly —
reaching Alexandria April 26th, just one month
after they left it for Shreveport. They continued
their course down Red River till May 7th, when
a severe engagement took place, in which the reb-
els were defeated, company E losing one mortally
wounded. May ITth they reached Semmesport
coMPAjrr H. 261
again, and the next day another battle was fought,
in which the 89th lost seven killed and forty-four
wounded — company E two killed and two wound-
ed. May 2J:th the regiment arrived at Yicksburg,
where they camped till June 4th, when they
started up the Mississippi. They reached Mem-
phis June 9th, 186i, since which time they have
been engaged in the important raids of General
Smith. The fortunes of war have rested heavily
upon company E, but in every battle and through
all hardships they have exhibited true courage
and fortitude. Their record is a highly honora-
ble one, and will remain a monument to their
COMPANY H, ONE HUNDREDTH REGIMENT INDI-
Captain, John W. Headington, promoted to major June 1, '64.
Lieutenant, Gideon Ratlibun, wounded at Missionary Ridge,
November 25, 18633
Second Lieutenant, Stephen B. H. Shanks, wounded at Mis-
sionary Ridge, November 25, 1863.J
Isaac N. Frazee, Eli Vore, Edwin Rowlett.
William F. Ware, died at Colli ersville, Tenn., April 4, 1864.
David J. Moore, wounded at Missionary Ridge Nov. 25, 1863.
Thomas Koons, died at Grand Junction, Tenn., Feb. 2, 1863.
Jacob Haviland, wounded at Missionary Ridge Nov. 25, 1863.
Solomon M. Barnes, promoted to sergeant May, 1863, for good
conduct ; received a slight wound at Dallas May 28.
262 coMPAirr h.
Sanford B. Couldren. Liberty Patterson.
Andrew J. Thomas, discharged Nov. 7, '63, at Mound City.
Jacob Bosworth, discharged at ]Memphis, March 22, 1863.
Wm. Fifer, slight wound at Mission Eidge Nov. 25.
Henry Hammons, drummer. Aquilla K. Mills, fifer, died — .
Wm. Wiley, fifer.
Samuel Allman, slight wound November 25.
Joseph S. Antles, Jonathan Armantrout.
John F. Bowden, promoted to first lieutenant company B,
11th Indiana cavalry, October, 1863.
Ephraim Byrd, died at home August 24, 1863.
George D. Borden, regimental harness maker.
Daniel Bickel, died at Memphis October 23, 1863. .
Samuel A. Blake, died at Memphis June 10, 1863.
James Baker, William Brunuer,
Nathan Bubmire, George H. Bunnell,
Lewis B. Bunnell, James M. Bair.
Jonathan Cain, discharged May 26, '63, at Colliersville, Teun.
Charles W. Caster, promoted corporal Jan. 1, '64, for gallant
conduct; died at Bellefonte Station, Ala., Feb. 19, '64.
John M. Collett, wounded at Mission Ridge Nov. 25, '63.
Mulford C. Carl, wounded at Chattahoochie River July 4, '64.
James Cartright, died at Memphis Nov. 29, 1863.
Jesse Collins, Joseph L. Carl, William Cherry.
Joseph Dehofif, died at St. Louis Dec. 20, 1862.
Amos Ducket, George Fritzinger, Richard Fitzgerald;
Henry Flooding, Joshua W. Flood, Abner J. Frazee.
John Flooding, killed at Mission Ridge Nov. 25, 1863.
Obed Gibson, died at La Grange, Tenn., Jan. 15, 1863.
Henderson Graves, wounded at Dallas, Ga., May 28.
Abram Geiger, wounded at Mission Ridge Nov. 25.
Daniel D. Ginger, Stephen M. Hughes,
Wm. W. Horner, George B. Haffner,
Wm. H. Hester, James Hoad.
Levi P. Hilton, died at Vicksbui-g Sept. 28, 1863.
COMPANY H. 263
Henry C. Holtsapple, died at Bellefonte Station, Feb. 28, '64,
James D. Hardy, died at La Grange, Tenn., March 9, 1863.
Caleb Haviland, discharged November 36, 1863.
Joseph C. Hawkins, hospital steward.
Thomas H. Ilijff, died at St. Louis August 5, 1863.
Noah Kunce, died at Memphis Nov. 26, 1863.
Joseph W. Lafollett, died at LaQrange, Tenn., Feb. 37, '63.
John C. Morris, died at Nashville, Tenn., Dec. 18, '63.
Jacob W. McCroskey, wagon master.
James A. Mason, wounded at Mission Ridge Nov. 35.
J. W. Merchant, died at Colliersville, Tenn., May 7, '63.
Lafayette Morgan, died at Scottsboro, Ala. , Dec. 87, '63.
John M. Mills, died at LaGrange, Tenn., Feb. 7, '63.
David Mills, hospital steward at Indianapolis.
Cassius B. Mills, discharged at Colliersville May 36, '63.
Edward Nicholas, Elias A. Porter,
Joshua Poling, Charles Plummer,
Isaiah Parkison, John J. Rathbun,
Alexander W. Ruhl, Charles W. Rarrick,
Ezekiel Rowlett, discharged at Indianapolis Aug. 35, '63.
Noah Ruhl, promoted corporal Dec. 25, '63.
Eli Rines, Adam Shultz,
Jacob Sutton, discharged at Memphis March 16, '63.
Henry Spahr, died at Camp Sherman August 18, '63.
Solon C. Stratton, died on Tallahatchie River Dec. 2, '62.
Henry C. Staley, Taylor Towle,
Granville C. Tucker, Robie M. Towle,
Alvah J. Tucker, wounded at Dallas, Ga. , May 38, '64. '
Jesse Thompson, Samuel Wilkison,
John Westfall, David Wolf,
Joseph B. Whitenack,
James G. Walker, promoted corporal May, 1863 ; killed at
Mission Ridge Nov. 85, '53.
Cyrus J. Wilson, died at Snider's Bluff June 36, '63.
Jacob West, wounded at Mission Ridge Nov. 80, '63.
264 COMPANY H.
Company H was recruited in August, 1862 ;
left Portland September 9 th ; reported at Wabash,
when it organized by electing the following offi-
cers : Captain, John W. Headington ; First Lieu-
tenant, Gideon Rathbun ; Second Lieutenant Ste-
phen B. H. Shanks. They were mustered into
the three years' service at Lidianapolison the 23d
of September. Early in October they were fur-
loughed home for a few days. On the 11th of
J^Tovember they went by rail to Cairo; thence by
steamboat to Memphis, where they joined Grant's
army and aconipanied him on his grand expedi-
tion through Mississippi in the fall of 1862. They
were as far South as Yocknapatafa. On their re-
turn they reached Grand Junction January 10th,
1863, in the vicinity of which they remained dur-
ing the winter.
On the return march to Holly Springs the
company began to feel the hardships of war.
Their rations failed, and they lived as they could,
some of the time on raw or parched corn, and but
little of that. A member of the company (a lad
of sixteen years) writes thus: "Many murmur
and say they have notliing to eat and must starve.
For my part I find it easy enough to get along —
MI88IONAEY RIE>OB. 265
if one only takes a little care. I had an ear of
corn for my breakfast and put another ear in my
pocket for ray supper."
In March, 1863, they moved to Colliersville,
Tennessee, where they remained, doing guard
duty and scouting until June 5th, when they pro-
ceeded to Yicksburg and joined the grand siege
of that city. After its surrender they went with
the force which drove the rebel Johnston from
They spent nearly three months in camp on Big
Black River, and late in September proceeded up
the river to Memphis, thence by land through
Northern Mississippi and Alabama to Chatta-
nooga, Tennessee. The march from Memphis to
Chattanooga was long and severe, occupying forty
days, the distance being about three hundred
miles. The men endured the trip pretty well,
however; many of them even gaining in l^ealth
and strength during the long and tiresome jour-
ney. On Lookout Mountain, and in the region
overlooking and threatening Chattanooga and
Grant's gallant army, lay Bragg's rebel hosts.
Hardly had Sherman's brave troops taken a little
rest until the combined forces made a fierce and
persistent attack on the enemy. Up the heights
of Missionary Ridge and Lookout Mountain the
resistless heroes charged, killed and captured
great numbers and drove the rest in confusion for
266 J. C. HAWKINS.
many miles into Georgia. In this fierce battle of
three days Company H took an active and honor-
able part, in which they lost two killed and eleven
wounded, mostly severely, including both Lieu-
tenants, The number engaged was thirty-two, in-
cluding ofhcers. The standard bearer was shot
down. Private J. C. Hawkins seized the falling
banner, waved it detiantly to the foe, rallied the
wavering columns, and bore it triumphantly to
the end of the fight. For this and other gallant
conduct he was publicly complimented, and the
ofiicers of the regiment, through Chaplain Brouse,
presented to him an ofiicer's uniform.
On the 26th of November they started in pur-
suit of the retreating rebels, and continued as far
as Graysville, Georgia, where they burned a large
mill, and tore up and destroyed the railroad track
and bridges. They were then selected as part of
the force to march to the relief of Knoxville. In
that expedition of more than three weeks the men
marched day after day, sometimes till midnight,
half naked, bare-footed, without rations or cook-
ing utensils, yet almost without a murmur. Ar-
rived at Maysville, they learned that the rebels
had run, and they returned by way of Chatta-
nooga and Bridgeport, to Scottsboro, Alabama,
where they arrived December 27th, 1S63.
The march to the relief of Knoxville was one
of peculiar and excessive hardships. In the bat-
LETTER FROM THE BATTLE FIELD. 267
tie of Missionary Ridge, and tlie subsequent pur-
suit, occupying live days, the company had left or
thrown away clothes, equi]3age, etc., and they had
almost no blankets, tents, overcoats, or cooking
utensils. Some melted their canteens apart, and
used them to bake bread upon. They subsisted
on what they could obtain by the way, which was
insufficient to satisfy their hunger, and though it
was December, many were bare-footed and with-
out blankets; yet the brave and noble men bore
these hardships even with cheerfulness. The fol-
lowing letter, written to the church of which the
writer was a member, shows the spirit of some of
these soldiers :
Battle field near Jackson, Mississippi, )
July 12th, 1864— Sabbath morning. )
Dear Brethren : — I cannot but contrast the diflference
between our situations at this moment. You are preparing
to worship God in your little church, and to listen to the
words of " Peace on earth and good will to men," while I,
your brother, am lying close to a trembling earth, made so by
the whizzing of balls and shells aimed for our destruction !
You no doubt will be interested in the character of my reflec-
tions and feelings in the circumstances.
After singing " The Lord my Shepherd is," " From every
stormy wind that blows," and " On the mountain top appear-
ing," I committed myself, my family, my brethren and hiy
country to God's keeping. The result is a calmness and
resignation tliat is almost surprising to myself. How far I
shall be able to maintain this state of feeling of course I can-
not tell, but I trust that I shall be enabled to find strength in
268 AT ATLANTA.
the promise, " The Lord is a present help in every time of
need," and " As thy day is, so shall thy strength be ;" and if
not a sparrow falls to the ground without our Heavenly
Father, why need I be afraid ?
Now, brethren, as it regards the principles we have con-
tended for : In tlie face of death I believe they are Tight ! I
have lived by them and stood up for them in life ; and if it
please God that I should now die, I shall die with the full
confidence that piety to God and humanity to man are the
sum and substance of Christ's holy religion. I exhort you,
therefore, to stand fast by them — " Stand up for Jesus !" and
though we may always be unpopular among men. yet "it
pays" to have the consciousness that all is well when there is
danger in everj'' step, and one looks death square in the face.
(We are looking every moment for an order to charge.)
Farewell. May the peace of God, that passeth all under-
standing, be with you to tJie end.
Your brother, * * *
Early in January, 186i, the reo;iment was again
set to guarding railroads, and continued until Ma_y
1st, when it joined the grand army now before
Atliinta. In this campaign it has participated in
engagements atResaca, Dallas, New Hope Church
and Kenesaw Mountain, and several have been
wounded. Their losses have been heavy through-
out the war. In sixteen different places and
seven different Stages, their "dead ones brave"
are' lying. The battle-scarred veterans of com-
pany H have made a record which while they
live will be their honor, and when they die will
be their glorious epitaph.
* COMPANY F. 269
COMPANY F, SEVENTY-FIFTH REGIMENT INDI-
Captain, Dr. Christopher S. Arthur, promoted to surgeon.
First Lieutenant, John S. Stanton, promoted to captain Aug
20, 1862 — wounded at Chicliamauga.
Second Lieutenant, Abraliam C. Rush, promoted to first lieu-
tenant Aug. 20, 18G2, resigned Dec. 22, 1862.
Orderly, Jesse T. Underwood, promoted to second lieutenant
Aug. 20, 1862, resigned Feb., 1863.
Guy W. McGriff, promoted to first lieutenant Dec. 23, 1863,
resigned April 16, 1864.
Joseph Lewis, promoted to orderly Dec. 23, 1862 ; to second
lieutenant Feb., 1863.
Justice Green, died at home Nov. 1863.
John Hardy, jun., wounded at Kenesaw Mountain,
Oliver H. P. Hammitt, transferred to gunboat.
Henry V. Walling, wounded William Arbaugh,
at Kenesaw Mountain, Jas. Stewart, killed at Chicka-
Henry Getz, mauga,
John P. Boyd, died Nov. 1862 Solomon Dehofi",
David Henry, Charles A. Black,
Charles E. Bennett, died at Charles W. Robbins,
Castillian Springs Nov. '62 Edward J. Haynes.
Alexander Hyde, fifer, wounded at Kenesaw Mountain.
William R. Miller, drummer, discharged.
Charles S. Butterworth, John McKinstry, discharged —
Albert Biirris, died before reaching home.
James W. Binegar, wounded George W. McCartney,
at Missionary Ridge, William W. McLellan,
Lyman Brown, discharged, Perry Odell.
270 COMPANY F.
Elias F. Baird, died at Chat- James Porter, killed at Kene-
tanooga, saw Mountain Jnne 18, '64
Aaron Baker, Mailon I. Paxsou,
Thomas J. Cartwright, Jesse J. Russell, died Jan. '63.
Joseph A. Craig, Seth Kegester, died at Chatta-
Harvey Collins, nooga,
Francis A. CoUett, David E. Reilej^ wounded at
Samuel W. Di.xon, Chickaraauga,
Eli Dehoff, discharged — died Enos T. Reed, discharged,
alter reaching home, Robt. Reusenberg, discharged,
Samuel M. Elliott, Stephen Shelton, discharged,
Samuel Force, Alexander Strain,
Timothy F. Fait, killed at James A. Smith,
Chickamanga Sept. 1863 George Shirk, died Jan. 1863,
Charles L. Fullmer, wounded John Shirk, wounded at Chick-
at Chickamauga, amauga,
David Farris, discharged, Charles A. Stephens, promoted
Lewis Ginger, detailed at brig- corporal, and detailed as
adeh'dq'rs as mt'd orderly ordnance serg't Jan. 1864,
Lilburn Gray, discharged, Jacob Schmidt, died Jan. 1863
Enos T.Hoskins, died Nov. '62 Everett W. Sullivan, wounded
Nathan B. Hickman, disch'd at Chickamauga — disch'd,
Geo. W. Hammitt, promoted Charles E. Stanton, died at
ord. ser't Feb. 12, 1864, Ringgold, Georgia,
Joseph Heminger, detailed in William F. Smith, captured
Engineer Corps Dec. '62 Dec. 1863,
David Heminger, detailed in Spencer Smith,
Engineer Corps Dec. '62 John W. Sage, wounded at
William Heminger, wounded Chickamauga,
at Chickamauga Sept. '63 T. L. Stratton, transferred to
John Hardy, sen., discharged Co. E, 89th Indiana,
Moses Hardy, died, Cornelius Thompson, detached
Charles Hughes, to Engineer Corps,
Ephraim Jellison, William W. Thorp,
Thomas C. Keen, discharged William T. Underwood, disch.
April, 1864, William Vance, died Nov. '62
COMPANY F. 271
George H. Kiusey, killed at William C. Vail,
Chickamaiiga, ■ John Walters, wounded at
Henry Kuntz, discharged, Chickamauga,
Richard Loyd, killed at Mis- Jacob H. Wolford,
sionary Ridge, Jas. M. Wolford, died Jan. '63
Isaiah M. Larick, wounded at Henry F. West,
Kenesaw Mountain, Edward J. West, died Jan. '63
Francis M. Larick, Uriah Williams, died,
Robert Michaels, Jasper N. Whitaker,
Francis R. Moon, Samuel vVibel.
John Meredith, died Jan. 1863Williani H. Wilson, deserted
Aaron J. Mendenhall, died to 13th Ohio, to which he
Jan. 1863, formerly belonged.
Whole number 99
Transferred, Resigned and Discharged 19
Company F was recruited in July, 1862, by A.
C. Rush ; left Portland on tlie 31st of the same
month ; the next day went into camp at Wabash;
was assigned to the 75th regiment, and was mus-
tered into the three years' service August 20th,
and in two days were at Louisville. They were
then, under orders of Gen. Dumont, sent to several
points in Kentucky in search of the rebel Mor-
gan. They visited Lebanon, Shepardsville and
Lebanon Junction, etc., and then returned to
Louisville on the 22d of September ; thence went
to Elizabethtown, and agai^ returned to Louis-
ville. On the 6th of October they left this city
the third time and went to Frankfort, Versailles
272 COMPANY E.
and Bowling Green ; thence to Castillian Springs,
Tennessee, where tliey arrived JSTovember 28th,
1862. Here they lost, by disease, four of their
members. Remaining here nearly one month,
they set out for Murfreesboro, which point they
reached January 6th, 1863. They remained at
this place nearly six months, during which they
lost by death eight and by being discharged nine.
On the 23d of June they were once more ordered
to march. At Hoover's Gap they found the en-
emy, but after considerable skirmishing he tied.
Their next visits "were to Tullahoma, Winfred,
Dechard and University Heights on the Cumber- .
land Mountains ; crossed Lookout Mountain and
Pond Springs on the 14th of September, and on
the 19th engaged in that terrible struggle at
Chickamauga, in which the 75th regiment lost
nearly one-third of its members andj company E
three killed and seven wounded. In this fight
they were in the 2d brigade, dth division, com-
manded by Maj. Gen. Joseph J. Reynolds ; IMh
Army Corps, Maj. Gen. Geo. H. Thomas. The
brigade commander, Col. King, was killed, and
the command then devolved upon Col. Milton S.
Robinson, of the 75th regiment. On the 20th
they again encountered the enemy, a severe en-
gagement followed, in which Capt. J. S. Stanton
was wounded, and Lieut. Underwood commanded
the company. Two days later they retired with
COMPANY B. 273
the army to Chattanoga. The rebels having cut
off their communications by raih-oad, they were
on short rations for three months. At this place
three of company F died of disease. On the 25th
of November they participated in the fierce con-
test at Mission Ridge, in which they lost one kill-
ed and two wounded. Lieut. Lewis commanded
the company. From that time forward they were
engaged in the great campaign in that department.
On the 18th of June, 1864, at Kenesaw Mountain,
they were in the front, and company F lost three
in killed and four wounded. In November, 1863,
Capt. Stanton was detailed on the recruiting ser-
vice; Lieut. McGriff detailed as ordnance officer
on Gen. Baird's staff, and the company was com-
manded by Lieut. Jos. Lewis.
Since the opening of Gen. Sherman's campaign
company F has been most of the time in front,
gallantly performing all duties required of it. It
has met the enemy in some of the severest con-
tests of the war. Its large list of noble men who
have been killed and wounded on all these occa-
sions, attests its uniform bravery and deeds of im-
perishable glory. "We leave it looking from the
front into the besieged city of Atlanta.
Comj^any B, 11th Indiana Cavalry, was recruit-
ed by R. C. Harper, Elias Shewalter and J. F.
Bowden, in October, 1863.
On the 10th of November they were mus-
374 COMPANY B.
tered into the three-^^ears' service at Indianapolis.
Mr. Bowden was appointed First Lieutenant.
They were then sent to Kokomo, Indiana, to fill
up the compan}'^, and on the 21st of December
Mr. She waiter was elected Captain, and Mr. Har-
per Second Lieutenant. On the 23d of January,
1864, they went to Indiana^Dolis, where they
waited until May for horses. They were then
sent to aSTashville, Tennessee, unmounted, where
they voluntarily chose infantry duty to idleness,
and have since served in that capacity. On the
1st of June they were sent to guard the railroad
running from Stevenson to Huntsville, Alabama.
Captain Shewalter, with one hundred and sixty-
four men, was. placed to guard Mud Creek Bridge,
eight miles from Stevenson. Lieutenant Bowden
was detailed to command Company A of the same
regiment. They have been in the service only a
short time, but are ready whenever called upon
to imitate the bravery of the veteran soldiers from
Jay. The following is a list of the company :
COMPANY B, ELEVENTH INDIANA CAVALRY.
Captain, Elias Shewalter.
First Lieutenant, John F. Bowden, was in battles of Vicks-
burg and Jackson, Mississippi, in Company H, 100th In-
diana, commissioned first lieutenant in the 11th Cavalry,
Nov. 11th, 1863.
Second Lieutenant, R. C. Harper.
Orderly, Samuel F. Hiatt,
Quartermaster, Aaron L. Somers,
Commissary, Thomas W. Burk,
1st, James A. Hutchinson, 4th, Isaac M. McLellan,
2d John W. Hall, 5th, John W. Cubbison.
3d John Hindman,
1 st, John Vickrey,
2d, Caleb M. Ducket,
3d, Elias H. West,
4th, Henry Elbert,
5th, Raleigh Bowden,
William Hyde, Bugler,
Joseph G. Harter, "
John N. Sullivan, Farrier.
George N. Adams,
Banford P. Burk, was in the
battle of Willson' s Creek
and Belmont, Mo., Fort
Donelson, Shiloh, Chap-
lin Hills, Stone River, in
Co. L, 4th Iowa Cavalry.
George W. Bishop,
George W. Bush, was in the
battle oftRiclimond, Ky.
wounded in hips. Served
eleven months in Co. F,
6th, Ambrose Somers, was in
Co. H, 12t.h Indiana Regi-
ment, at Antietam,
7th, David J. Kelley,
8th, William R. Frederick.
John Cookerly, Blacksmith.
Henry Carpenter, Teamster.
Joseph S. Tucker, Saddler.
Albert P. Loomis,
Peter W. B. Loy,
James M. Moore,
Henry E. McCartney,
John Myron, died March 26th
1864, at City Hospital, In-
Wiley S. McLaughlin,
James W. Nicholson,
SEVENTH INDIANA CAVALRY.
William W. Bair,
"William H. Cheneworth,
James J. Eagy,
John A. Garringer,
James M. Hammitt,
William S. Hyde,
Albert N. Jack,
Thomas D. Kerns,
Byron W. King,
George W. Loy,
Thomas W. Sullivan,
F. J. Stover,
John N. Tucker,
James F. Thompson,
Francis Viniug, died in City
Hospital at Indianapolis,
April 3, 1864,
Regimental officers from Jay County in the
Seventh Indiana Cavalry Regiment :
Colonel, John P. C. Shanks, was on Gen. Fremont's staff in
Surgeon, William Freeman.
Chaplain, James Marquis. «
Members of Company E, Seventh Indiana
Cavalry from Jay Coimty :
Captain, David T. Skinner.
Second Lieutenant, James Sloan, promoted to first lieutenant.
Orderly William M. Skinner, 4tli, James S. Stansberry.
3d, Barton B. Jenkins,
Morgan L. Gray, John K. Tetters,
Judson Skinner, died William Underwood.
John Adair, Jerome Hiatt,
William Adair, Jas. C. Jay, Hospital Steward,
Sanford P. Ames, Emanuel Knepper,
John W. Babb, Joseph Knepper,
Joseph Blackburn, Eli Lehr,
John G. W. Clevenger, Benjamin F. Paxson,
James G. Cloud, John Q. Paxson,
Daniel B. Crow, died Coston Porter,
Abijah Crow, John Roberts,
Humphrey Davis, John Schneider,
John H. Elliott, William H. Smith,
David Farris, Daniel H. Van Camp, killed
Obadiah Gardner, died in battle of Brice's Cross
Isaac Griffith, Roads, Miss., June 10, 1864
Samuel I. Gray, William Van Skyhawk,
George Haley, John Ware,
Richard D. Hoover, Euos Walker,
George W. Hambleton, Morris P. Wood.
Regimental Officers 3
Company E 43
When the call was made in April, 1864, for
volunteers to serve for one hundred, days, recr.ui.t-
378 one-hundred-days' men.
ing was immediately commenced in Jay, Ou the
20th of May the following company left Portland
for Indianapolis. Remaining at Camp Carrington
a few days, tliey were then sent to Fort Sands,
Kentucky, thirty-five miles south of Louisville,
where they are now located. Rev. N. T. Petty-
cord, a Methodist minister on the New Corydon
circuit, and P. S. Loofbourrow, editor of the Jay
Torch Lights went as privates in this company.
The editor's wife, Mrs. Ann E. Loofbourrow, and
Miss Rebecca Adams, took entire charge of the
paper, editing it, setting the type, and doing all
other work required to issue the paper. They did
this work with a promptness, too, which many of
their more pretending brothers of the press would
do well to imitate.
COMPANY E, ONE HUNDRED AND THIRTY-NINTH
REGIMENT INDIANA VOLUNTEERS.
Captain, A. C. Rush.
First Lieutenant, F. R. Stratton.
Second Lieutenant, G. W. Loofbourrow.
Orderly, Jacob Bosworth, jr. 3d, Andrew Sunday,
1st, A. W. Allen, 4th, Samuel Eagy.
2d, Isaac Simmons,
1st, S. R. Bell, 5th, John Pipe,
2d, G. W. Christman, Gth, Joseph Jeleff,
3d, Henry Cristler, 7th, J. J. M. Lafollett,
4th, Abraham Byrd, 8th, Alfred Shepherd.
J. H. Adams,
G. B. Anderson,
T. J. Ashdill,
E. F. Calderwood,
W. R. Curtis,
J. H. Deffenbaugh,
B. L. Dewees,
J. W. Grigsby,
Lewis D. Hall,
B. M. Howell,
P. S. Loofbourrow,
F. R. Lewis,
G. W. Metzuer,
E. E. Moon,
Geo. G. Montgomery,
E. J. Mendenhall,
C. A. May,
M. C. McDugal,
W. B. Pingry,
N. T. Pettycord,
J. H. Stratton,
A. B. Woodward,
Com- J. Watkins,
J. L. Whaley.
The following one hundred days' men were
enlisted at Camden by Capt. Geo. W. Fairchilds,
who, uniting with a squad from Bluffton, went to
OXE-IIUXDKED-DAYS . MEN.
Indianapolis, and wliile the officers were at home
getting recruits to till the company, by order of
the Adjutant General they were disbanded, and,
with one exception, were distributed through the
companies forming the 138th regiment, Colonel
Thomas W. Bennett,
Hii-am G. Fulmer,
Hiram L. Grissell,
Ensley L. Gray,
Alouzo P. Hughes,
Gabriel C. Johnson,
William Keagle, ^
George W. Keagle,
Abraham Morical, lo9th Regt.
James A. Pugh,
Allen T. Flace,
Benjamin F. Paxson,
Joseph E. Paxson,
Israel A. Place,
John W. Williams.
The following one hundred days' soldier are in
the ISitli Indiana regiment :
Matthew Atkinson, John J. Hawkins, member of
John Brewster, non-commissioned staff,
J. W. Daugherty, Smith.
William C. Dye, Total 6
Total one-hundred-days' men 112
COMPANY F. 281
JAY COUNTY SOLDIERS IN COMPANY F, FORTI-
ETH REGIMENT OHIO VOLUNTEERS.
[The * designates those re-enlisted.]
Capt. John L. Reeves, promoted major May 22, '64.
Joseph H. Brewster, killed by railroad accident at Union City
Abram J. Brake, wounded at Chickamauga.
John W. McKay, transferred to Invalid Corps.
Nelson White,* W. H. McLaughlin.
W. H. Frasher, died at home March, 1862.
Wm. B. Simmons, discharged January, 1864.
Geo. W. Blake, discharged September, 1863.
Wm. P. Beard, wounded at Chickamauga.
Wm. N. Strader, discharged July, 1863.
Edwin H. Snellbaker, killed at Chickamauga.
J. Q. A. Andrews, G. W. Butcher, J. W. Butcher,
Jason 0. Brewster, wagoner.
Lewis Beard,* right arm amputated, wounded at Altoona.
Samuel Eagy, discharged September, 1863.
George Ehrhart, wounded* five times at Chickamauga.
Hemeu Emberson,* wounded at Chickamauga.
John G. McLaughlin, wounded at Chickamauga.
Francis M. McLaughlin, discharged.
Henry McLaughlin, died at Ashland, Ky., March 2d, 1863.
Lorenzo Stults, detailed Pioneer Corps, April, 1863.
John Eagy, Hiram McLoughlin.
Whole number .26
Discharged and transferred 7
282 COMPANY 0.
JAY COUNTY SOLDIERS IN COMPANY C, NINE-
TEENTH REGIMENT INDIANA VOLUNTEERS.
Sergeant Henry Ammerman, promoted and resigned in 1861.
Corporal George AUman, mortally wounded at Antietam.
Corporal Isaac N. Frazee, discharged ; re-enlisted in compa-
ny H, lOOth Indiana.
James W. Crowell, discharged.
David Ganinger, commissary sergeant, died.
David V. Garringer, re-enlisted ; wounded at S. Mountain.
Jonathan Gray, discharged.
James Ham, killed at South Mountain Sept. 14, '63.
George L. Moore, re-enlisted; promoted at Antietam.
John Nixon, discharged.
Isaac R. Rathbun, wounded at Antietam ; discharged.
G. R. Rathbun, discharged.
Wm. Williamson, wounded at Antietam ; discharged.
John Hester, wounded at South Mountain ; arm amputated.
Thomas Bonfill, killed in 1864.
E. G. Moore, at home sick.
Amos Whiteneck, killed in 1864.
Nathan B. Maxwell, enlisted April 18, 1861, in co. E, 8th Ind.;
re-enlisted in 19th ; died at Washington City Dec. 12, '63.
George M. Rathbun, discharged.
Alexander Burk, killed at Gettysburg.
Jackson Reeves, Valentine Thompson,
C. C. Rider, wounded, Isaac Cherry, wounded,
Albert CoUett, wounded, Thomas Barr.
Whole number 36
MEMBERS OF COMPANY I, ONE HUNDRED AND
Lieutenant 'Robert W. Nickum.
Lieutenant William Van Camp.
SIXTY-NINTH INDIANA. 283
John Isenliart, died at Nashville July 2, 1864.
John S. McLaughlin, James Williams,
Simon Bunis, John J. Campbell,
John H. Smith, William White,
Rev. Wm. Smith, Thomas B. Hill,
Wm. P. Wehrly, Benjamin Emberson,
David H. Dutro.
The following persons, from Richland Town-
ship, are also in the One Hundred and Thirtieth
William Current, Alva Johnson,
Abraham Coons, Abraham Keesear,
John Cuness, William Maitle,
Jacob Daugherty, James Metlen,
Thomas Daugherty, William Powell,
Thomas Dragoo, Allen W. Roberts,
Alva Evans, James Smith,
James W. Evans, James Stawford,
Amos Hall, Samuel Taylor,
James Hayes, Mikle,
Jacob Hesser, Samuel Wilson,
James Hpppis, Total 23
ilEMBERS OF THE SIXTY-NINTH INDIANA.
R. B. Castle, William Matchet,
H. P. Castle, Lewis O'Neil,
William Clough, killed near Ezekiel Clough,
Vicksburg, Levi Matchet,
Calvin Diggs, taken prisoner Peter Matchet,
at Chickamauga, W. S. Pinney,
Enoch Fields, David Reed.
284 MISCELLANEOUS LIST.
MEMBERS OF THE EIGHTY-FOURTH INDIANA.
M. D. Lockhart, Co. B, killed Benjamin Kemp, Co. E:
at Chickamauga, George Swank, "
Samuel B. Smith, Co. B, Alexander Hutchinson, Co. E,
W. M. Shrach, Co. B, wound- wounded at Chickamauga,
ed at Resaca, Henry Hutchinson, Co. E.
J. W. Coulson, Co. B, John J. Brown,
Charles Emerson, Co. E, Harris Black, Co. H.
MEMBERS OF THE THIRTY-SIXTH INDIANA.
George W. Crandall, George W. McKinney, wound-
James W. Evans, shot three ed twice at Shiloh,
times at Shiloh, W. G. Sutton,
Thomas Guston, Co. E, Benj . Shields, died Oct. 3d ,
"W. H. Hubbard, 1861 ;— first death among
Charles "W. Lambert, the soldiers from Jay Co.
Charles F. Losh, John W. Thomas.
James E. Phillips, Total 11
COMPANY K, FORTIETH OHIO.
John Butcher, Elisha H, Hunter, .
Martin Butcher, Reuben Jones,
Harvey Denney, died James Smith,
Jasper Denney, Oliver Wells.
Franklin Denney, Total 11
Deserted not given above 4
Joseph Darst, 2d Ohio Art. Ner Gaunt, 8th Ind.
C.Hatmaker, Co. D, 85th Ohio Cyrus Grice, 87th Ohio
Robt.M.. Mann, 2d Ohio Art. John Grice, "
Firmen Andrews, 81st Ohio Nathan Higgins, 47th Ind.
David Stahl, 6th Incl. Cav.
Geo. Chame, " "
John BufBngton, 48th Ind.
G. A.Sommers, Co.E, 88th lud.
Charles W. Cline, — Ohio
J.W.Deuney, 87tli Ohio, died.
Asa Tharp, 17th Ohio
T. Theurcr, 8th Ohio Bat. died
Samuel Buther, 2d Ohio Art.
J. T. Sncllbaker, "
Jas. M. Anderson, 47th Ohio.
Jas. Albnan, Co. A, 83d Ohio,
taken prisoner at Chick-
amauga, still held.
David M. Bell, 47th Ind.
Alpheus Bailey, 13th Ind.
W. J. Bickel, 47lh Ind.
M. P. Boggs, Co. D, 66th Ohio,
wounded at Port Repub-
lic and discharged.
William T. Boggs, Co. D, 66th
Ohio, wounded at Gettys-
burg — re-enlisted.
Hiram Bromagem, 8th Ind.
John Cring, 90th Ind.
Henry Crabtree, 57th Ohio
Johiel Crabtree, "
Joseph P. Carder, 19th Ind.
Malia V. Coons, 47th Ohio.
Job T. Devoss, 47th Ind. died
John W. Devoss, " "
Michael Downey, "
Daniel Dearworth, 87th Ohio
James Evans, 69th Ohio.
David W. Freeman, 12th Ind.
0. C. Higgins, 3d Mich Cav.
Jackson Hatttrman, 47th Ind.
W. N. Higgins,
John S. Hawkins, 22 Ohio
Isaac E. Haines, 47th Ind.
James A. Hanliu, 17th Ohio
David Jordan, Co. G, 40th Ohio
Charles R. Loomis, 12th Ind.
John Losh, 1st 111. Cavalry
F. G. McConnell, 47ih l&d.
R. L. McConnell, 80th "
Leander Moon, 85th Ohio
John Mongar, — Ind. Cav.
Samuel Morris, 87th Ind.
H. M. McLaughlin, 134th Ind.
Hiram McLaughlin, 87th Ohio
John G. McLaughlin, "
John Pfeifer, 1st Ohio Cav.
Theodore Parker, 17th Ohio
Webster Richmond, 12th Ind.
Geo. M. Randall, Battery
Felix Ryan, 124th Ind.
Daniel W. Smith, 19th Ind.—
Died at Washington.
Joseph A. Starbuck, 41st Ind.
Amos Shey, — Ohio
Penley Shey, "
Francis Snyder, 19th Ind.
O. B. Snyder, 40th Ohio
James Smith, "
James Spillman, "
John Stone, 87th Ohio
Francis M. Wright, 17th Ind.
ElishaB. West, 29th Ind.
A. J. Williamson, 19th Ind.
John Gaunt, 8th Ind. Henry J. Warner, 8th Ind.
William Gust on, Co. E, 36th W. H. West, — Ohio
Ind. died Dec. 30, 1861.
The following names are on the Provust Mar-
shal's record, as volunteers for Jaj, without the
regiment being given :
H. H. Abbott,
John D. J. German,
John C. Morris,
John H. McConnell,
Honry C. Mongar,
C. N. Rarrick,
John N. Sullivan,
Cyrus J. Wilson,
In L862 James B. Jaqua was appointed Draft
Commissioner for Ja}^ County. He took the first
enrollment, and on the 6th of October, 1862, the
following persons were drafted for nine months.
Thej were taken to Indianapolis by Provost Mar-
shal Isaac Underwood, where they had the privi-
lege of choosing what volunteer regiment they
desired to enter, and were scattered :
[Those marked with an asterisk (*) furnished a substitute.]
James J. Bridgford,
G. W. Current,
"W. N. Current,
D. M. Crumley,*
John L. Fires,
J. A. Keesaer,
J. W. Levally,
George S. Barber,
John J. L. Craig,
J. F. McFarland,*
F. M. Bell,
Abraham Halm, Jun.
W. C. Hudson,*
W. H. Hammond,*
J. R. Judy,*
A. J. Landis,
O. A. Lord,
A. P. Mallow,*
M. E. McDaniel,
D. F. Norris,
J. C. Norris,
T. G. Osburn,
J. M. Resler,
C. B. St. Johns,*
James J. Taylor — 25.
W. G. Smith,*
J, F. Woods,
William Wright— 13.
G. W. Shepherd,*
S. S. Taylor,
David Warren — 33.
John Gilbert, A. K. Pyle,
Henry Hizer, John Peterson,
J. N. Hiatt,* Isaac Phillips,*
D. M. V. B. Lanning, Jonas Phillips— 9.
Alexander Anderson,* L. T, Harter,
J. A. Cunningham, Emanuel Hartzell,
John Coffman, William Livengood,
Ira Gilbert, J. A. Morehous,*
John Hale, George Parsons,*
S. D. Holsopple,* Daniel Theurer— 13.
J. W. Bartmes, James Pitt,
William Bishop, Moses Ross,
A. J. Gillum,* Zedekiah Wheeler — 7.
Total number drafted 87.
The casualties in the miscellaneous list and most of the
fractional companies are not known.
Total number of soldiers from Jay 1,131
Deduct drafted men 87
Leaving the total number of volunteers 1,044
A few, after being discharged, have re-enlisted, and their
names appear twice, and a very few more are from other
counties, leaving over ONE THOUSAND VOLUNTEERS
from Jay County in the Army of the Union ! God bless
them ! Farewell.